Monday, December 3, 2012

M. E. XX

Nycteus Son of Hyrieus and Clonia and father of Antiopé, who is hence called Nycteïs. Antiopé was carried off by Epopeus, king of Sicyon; whereupon Nycteus, who governed Thebes, as the guardian of Labdacus, invaded Sicyon with a Theban army. Nycteus was defeated, died of his wounds, leaving his brother Lycus guardian of Labdacus. See Hyg. Fab.7, and LYCUS.

Eleos An Athenian deity personifying piety ( Pausan. i. 17, & 1 ).

halcyon days 1. The seven days before and the seven days after the winter solstice, when the halcyon was thought to breed and bring calm, peaceful weather. 2. Any period of peace and quiet.

Jovian adj. Of, pertaining to, or like Jove or Jupiter.

Romus Rom. Legend. a son of either Aeneas or Ascanius: sometimes believed to be the founder of Rome.

Thebe A satellite of Jupiter.  [ Lat. Thēbē, a nymph, daughter of the river god Asopus. ]

Orphic adj. 1. Of, pertaining to, or associated with Orpheus. 2. Having the quality of the music of Orpheus; enchanting. Also Orphical. [< L Orphicus < Gk. Orphikos < Orpheus Orpheus] Orphically adv.

Oeagrus or Oeager King of Thrace and father of Orpheus and Linus. Hence Oeagrius is used by the poets as equivalent to Thracius.

Argé A beautiful huntress changed into a stag by Apollo ( Hyg. Fab. 205 ).

Echidades A group of small islands at the mouth of the Acheloüs belonging to Arcania, said to have been formed by the aluvial deposits of the Acheloüs. They appear to have derived their name from their resemblance to the echinus, or sea-urchin. The largest of these islands was named Dulichium, and belonged to the kingdom of Odysseus, who is hence called Dulichius. See Herod. ii. 10.

Enna or Henna An ancient town of the Siculi in Sicily, on the road from Catania to Agrigentum, said to be the centre of the island ( όμΦαλός  Σικελιας ) It was surrounded by fertile plants, which bore large crops of wheat; it was one of the chief seats of the worship of Demeter; and according to later tradition, it was in a flowery meadow near this place where Pluto carried off Persephoné.

Feronia [L.] 1. Rom. Relig. An ancient Italian goddess, apparently a protectress of freedmen, perhaps originally a fountain goddess.

Pentheus [L., fr. Gr. Pentheus.] In Greek legend,  a king of Thebes, grandson of Cadmus, who resisted the introduction of the or gigantic worship of Dionysus. He was discovered watching the origins of the Bacchae and torn to pieces by his mother and sisters.

Nerites A son of Nereus and Doris who was loved by the goddess Aphrodite and turned into a shellfish when he refused to leave the sea. In another account he was the charioteer of Poseidon who was transformed into the shellfish by Helius for challenging the god in speed.

Maia 1. In Greek mythology, the eldest of the Pleiades, mother by Zeus of Hermes. 2. In Roman mythology, a goddess of spring associated with both Vulcan and Mercury and sometimes identified with the Greek Maia.  n. One of the six visible stars in the Pleiades cluster.

Electryon Son of Perseus and Andromeda and father of Alcmené, the wife of Amphitryon.

Iron Age 2.( l.c.Class. Myth. the present age, following the bronze age; the last and worst of the four ages of the human race, characterized by danger, corruption, and toil.

Caeneus The son of Elatus and Hippia, one of the Lapithae of Gyrton in Thessaly. The story was that he was originally a girl named Caenis, and at the same time rendered her invulnerable. Caeneus took part in the Argonautic expedition and the Calydonian boar hunt. At the marriage of Pirithoüs, the Centaurs, finding him vulnerable, crushed him to death with the trunk of trees, and he was afterwords changed into a bird. See PIRITHOÜS.

Porthaon The son of Agenor and Epicasté. He was king of Pleuron and Calydon, in Aetolia, and married Euryté, Melas, Oeneus, and Steropé. See OENEUS.

Anchurus A son of the Phrygian king Midas, in whose reign the earth opened in the neighbourhood of the town of Celaenae in Phrygia. Midas consulted the oracle in what manner the opening might be closed, and he was commanded to throw into it the most precious thing he possessed. He accordingly threw into it a great quantity of gold and silver, but when the chasm still did not close, his son Anchurus, thinking that life was the most precious of all things, mounted his horse and leapt into the chasm, which closed immediately.

lotus 1. a plant believed to be a jujube or elm, referred to in Greek legend as yielding a fruit that induced a state of dreamy and contented forgetfulness in those who ate it. 2. the fruit itself.

pantheon 1. All the gods of a people collectively.

Bronze Age 2. ( l.c.) Class. Myth. the third of the four ages of the human race, marked by war and violence; regarded as inferior to the silver age but superior to the following iron age. [1860-65]

psychopompos Also psychopomp [Gr. psychopompos, fr. psychē soul + pompos  conductor.] Gr. Relig. A conductor or guide of souls to the afterworld. Cf. HERMES.

Pelides In Greek mythology, any male descendant from Peleus, especially his son Achilles.

swan maiden In many ancient folk myths, a beautiful fairy maiden able to transform herself into a swan.

Ladon Class. Myth. a dragon having 100 heads and guarding the garden of the Hesperides: killed by Hercules.

Island of the Sun Class. Myth. Sicily: the island where Helius kept his oxen.

Amphyrsus A small stream in Thessaly flowing into the Pagasaeus Sinus. On its banks Apollo fed the herds of Admetus ( q. v.).

demigoddess 1. A female being, often the offspring of a deity and a human, who has some divine powers. 2. A deified woman.

Leos An eponymous hero of Athens, who is described as the son of Orpheus. Once, when Athens was suffering from famine or plague, the Delphic oracle demanded that the daughters of Leos should be sacrificed, and the father complied with the command of the oracle. The maidens were afterwords honoured by the Athenians, who erected the Leocorium ( from Aεώς and Κόρακ ) to them. Their names were Praxithea, Theopé, and Eubulé ( Pausan. i. 5, 2; x.10, 1 ). From Leos the tribe Leontis got its name.

Periphetes A son of Hephaestus; a monster at Epidaurus, who slew the passers-by with an iron club ( whence he was called κορυνήτης, or " club-bearer ") till he was himself slain by the young Theseus ( q. v.).

Abyla or Abila A mountain in Maurentania forming the eastern extremity of the African coast of the Fretum Gaditanum, or Strait of Gibraltar. This and Mt. Calpé, opposite to it, were called the Columns ( or Pillars ) of Hercules, from the legend that they were originally a single mountain, and had been torn asunder by Hercules.

Cisseus A king of Thrace, and father of Theano, or, according to others ( Eunp. Hec.3 ), of Hecuba (q.v.), who is hence called Cisseïs ( ΚιΓΓητς ).

Pheres (1) The son of Cretheus and Tyro and brother of Aeson and Amythaon, he was married to Periclymené, by whom he became the father of Admetus, Lycurgus, Idomené, and Periapis. He was believed to have founded the town of Pherae in Thessaly. (2) Son of Iason and Medea. (3) A follower of Pallas, who fought on the side of Aeneas against Turnus, and was slain by Halesus.

Eriphyle [L., fr. Gr. Eriphylē.] Gr. Myth. The wife of Amphiaraus, who foretold to her the disastrous end of the expedition against Thebes. Nevertheless she was bribed by Polynices to decide that her husband should undertake the adventure, the decision having left to her by mutual agreement. She was slain by her son Alcmaeon in revenge for the death of his father.

Ardalus A son of Hephaestus, and the reputed inventor of the pipe, whence the Muses, to whom he gave it, are called Ardalides ( Pausan. ii. 21 ).

Charilaus or Charillus A king of Sparta, son of Polydectes, who is said to have received his name from the general joy ( χάρις ) excited by the justice of his uncle Lycurgus, when he placed him, yet a new-born infant, on the royal seat, and bade the Spartans acknowledge him for their king.

Aea A city supposed by the poets to have been the capital of King Aeëtes, on the river Phasis, in Colchis.

Eleusine [NL., fr. Gr. Eleusinē the goddess Ceres.]

Dionysiac adj. Pertaining to Dionysus or the Dionysia. Also Dionysiacal Dionysiacally adv.

Dryops The son of the river-god Spercheus. He was the father of Dryopé (q. v.) and the reputed founder of the Dryopes (q. v.).

Semnae ( Οεμναι," the dread ones"). A name of the Erinyes (q. v.).

a-1898 Harper's Dict. of Class. Literature & Antiquities

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