Friday, November 30, 2012

M. E. XIX

Pleiades 1. In Greek mythology, the seven daughters of Atlas ( Maia, Electra, Taygeta, Alcyone, Celaeno, Sterope, and Merope ), who were set by Zeus among the stars. 2. Astron. A loose cluster of many hundred stars in the constellation Taurus, six of which are visible to ordinary site.

Morning The goddess Eos or Aurora.

Pillars of Hercules the two promontories on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar: the Rock of Gibraltar in Europe and the Jebel Musa in Africa; fabled to have been raised by Hercules. Also called Hercules' Pillars.

nectar 1. In Greek mythology, the drink of the gods. 2. Any delicious drink. 3. Bot. The saccharine secretion of plants, collected by bees to make honey.   [ < L < Gk. nektar] ─ nectarean, nectareous, nectarous adj.

Procne In Greek mythology, an Athenian princess whom the gods transformed into a swallow after she killed her son.

Aones An ancient Boeotian race, said to have been so called from Aon, son of Poseidon. Hence the poets frequently use Aonia as equivalent to Boeotia. As Mount Helicon and the fountain Aganippé were in Aonia, the Muses are called Aonides or Aoniae.

Lavinium An ancient town of Latium, three miles from the sea, and six miles east of Laurentum, on the Via Appia, founded by Aeneas, and called Lavinium in honour of his wife Lavinia ( Livy, i. 1 ). It was the sanctuary of the Latin Penates. See LAURENTUM.

Mestra Daughter of Erysichthon ( q. v.). She supported her famished father by employing the power to change herself into any form she pleased, the gift of her lover Poseidon. She let herself be sold in various forms, and then always return to her father ( Ovid, Met. viii. 738-878 ).

Dodonaeus A surname of Zeus from Dodona. See Homer, Il. xvi. 233.

Apsyrtides Islands at the head of the Adriatic, in the Sinus Flanaticus ( Gulf of Quarnero ); named, as tradition reported, from Apsyrtus the brother of Medea, who, according to one account, was killed here. See APSYRTUS.

Alalcomeneus Class. Myth. the first man: he reared Athena and reconciled Zeus and Hera. Also, Alalkomeneus. ―Alalcomenean, Alalkomenean, adj.

Iarbas, also Hiarbas A son of Iupiter and the Libyan nymph Garmantis. He was king of Gaebulia, and a suiter of Dido, queen of Carthage. See DIDO.

Furiae Class. Myth. fury ( def. 3).

Pherae ( in ancient geography) a town of SE Thessaly; the home of Admetus and Alcestis.

Hippothoüs Son of Cercyon, and father of Aepytus, king of Arcadia.

Dea Dia An early Roman goddess, probably identical with Acca Larentia and worshipped by the Frates Arvales ( q.v.). See ROMULUS.

Intonsus " The unshorn." An epithet applied to Apollo and Bacchus with reference to their eternal youth.

Fafnir In Germanic mythology, the dragon who guards the hoard of the Nibelungs, slain by Sigurd. Also Fafner.

Despoena " The mistress;" a title given to Aphrodité, to Demeter, and especially to Persephoné who was worshipped under this name in Arcadia ( Plat. De leg. 796 B ).

Eurymus Father of the seer Telemus, who is hence called Eurymides ( Odyss. ix. 509 ).

Aphrodisia Festivals celebrated in many towns of Greece in honour of Aphrodité (q.v.). The especial seat of her worship was at Cyprus. No bloody sacrifices were permitted to be offered, but only pure fire, flowers, and incense. The initiated also offered a piece of money to the goddess as a harlot; and received a measure of salt symbolizing the origin of Aphrodité in the sea, and  a phallus as expressive of the sexual function.

Panthoüs and Panthus One of the Trojan elders. By his wife, Phrontis, he was the father of Euphorbus, Polydamas, and Hypernor, who are called Panthoides. Panthoüs was originally a priest of Apollo at Delphi, and was brought to Troy by Antenor, who was captivated by his beauty ( Iliad, iii. 146; xiv. 450; xvii. 24, 40, 81; Verg. Aen. ii. 319 ).

Caphira A daughter of Oceanus. Together with the Telchines, on the island of Rhodes, she brought up Poseidon who had been entrusted to her by Rhea.

Maenalus A mountain in Arcadia, extending from Megapolis to Tegea, celebrated as the favourite haunt of the god Pan. The Roman poets frequently use the adjectives Maenalius and Maenalis as equivalent to Arcadius.

Acrisius Gk. Myth. A king of Argos and father of Danae who was killed by his grandson Perseus.

Momus In Greek mythology, the god of blame and mockery.  [ < L < Gk. momos blame, ridicule ]

Semiramis In Assyrian legend, the beautiful and wise wife of Ninus and founder of Babylon.

Mentes ( in the Odyssey ) a captain of the Taphians. Athena assumed his form when she urged Telemachus to search for Odysseus.

Bianor A son of the river-god Tiber, and of Manto, daughter of Tiresias. Servius makes him the founder of Mantua, and identical with Oenus.

Psyllus The eponymous king of the Psylli tribe of Libya. He was the father of Crataegonus by the nymph Anchiroe. ( Nonn. Dionys. xiii. 378 ).

Ematheon Son of Eos and Tithonus, brother of Memnon from whom he seized the government of the Ethiopians. He was slain by Heracles when travelling in search of the golden apples of the Hesperides. See Hes. Theog. 985.

Nomius " The Pasturer;" a name given to divinities protecting the pastures and shepherds, such as Apollo, Pan, Hermes, and Aristaeus.

Dryas Father of the Thracian king Lycurgus ( q.v.), who is hence called Dryantides.

Nixi Dii Male deities, be supposed to aid Iuno Lucina in her task of presiding over childbirth ( Ovid, Met. ix. 294 ), but this is regarded as erroneous.

Ithaca 1. An island of Greece, in the Ionian group; 36 sq. mi.; legendary home of Odysseus. Greek Itháki, Ithaki 2. A city in south central New York on the southern end of Cayaga Lake; pop.28, 799.  Ithacan adj. & n.

Arimaspi Greek Mythology. a race of one-eyed men of northern Europe who fought with the griffins, trying to wrest from them the gold they guarded.

Cynosura 1. Greek Mythology. a nymph of Mount Ida, and nurse of Zeus, metamorphosed into the constellation Ursa Minor. 2.= Cynosure.

hyacinth 3. In Greek mythology, a plant, perhaps the iris, larkspur or gladiolus, supposed to have sprung from the blood of the slain Hyacinthus.

Nyctimene [L., daughter of Epopeus, fr. Gr. Nyktimenē; she was changed into an owl.]

Polieus adj. [Gr.] Gr. Relig. Protector of the city  ( Athens ); an epithet of Zeus.

Amycus Class. Myth. a son of Poseidon and one of the Meliae, known for his ruthlessness and his skill at boxing.

Strophius A king of Phocis, son of Crissus and Antiphatia, and husband of Cydragora, Anaxibia, or Astyochia, by whom became the father of Astydamia and Pylades. See ORESTES.

Menestheus (1) The son of Peteos, who seized the government of Attica, while Theseus pined away in the nether world, and commanded the Athenians before Troy, where he fell ( See DEMOPHOÖN; THESEUS ). (2) The charioteer of Diomedes.

Zethus In Greek mythology, Amphion's twin brother. Also Zethos.

Gerana a Pygmean woman, and wife of their king, Nicodamas, by whom she became the mother of Mopsus ( according to Boeus, ap. Athen. ix. p. 393, of a tortoise ). Being highly esteemed and praised for her beauty among the Pygmies, she despised the gods, especially Artemis and Hera, who in revenge metamorphosed her into a crane. In this state she always fluttered about the place in which her son Mopsus dwelt, until she was killed by the Pygmies. This is said to have been the origin of the war between the Cranes and the Pygmies. ( Anton. Lib. 16, who calls her Oenoë; Eustath. ad. Hom. p. 1322; Ov. Met. 90 ).

Ithacesiae (1) Three islands opposite to Vibo, on the coast of Bruttium. They were thought to answer to the modern Braces, Praea, and Toricella. (2) Baiae is called by Silius Ithalicus sedes Ithacesia Baii, because founded by Baius, the pilot of Odysseus, according to the poetic legends of antiquity ( Sil. Ital. viii. 539 ).

hippogriff A mythological beast with the wings, head, and claws of a griffin, and the hindquarters of a horse. Also hippogryph[< F hippogriffe < Ital. hippogrifo < Gk. hippos horse + LL gryphus griffin ]

Amphitryon In Greek mythology, the husband of Alcmene.

Tannhäuser A Germanic minnesinger and crusader of the 13th century, identified with a legendary knight who gives himself up to revelry with Venus and her court in the Venusberg, then makes a trip to Rome to seek absolution. He is the hero of a opera by Wagner.

Crommyonian sow Gr. Myth. A dangerous wild pig which ravaged the land of Crommyon, on the Isthmus of Corinth. It was killed by Theseus.

Dia The daughter of Dioneus and wife of Ixion ( q. v.), by whom ( or, according to others by Zeus ) she became the mother of Pirithoüs ( q. v.).

a-1898 Harper's Dict. of Class. Literature & Antiquities

Thursday, November 29, 2012

M. E. XVIII

Aegipan [L., fr. Gr. Aigipan, fr. aix, aigios, goat + Pan Pan.] Pan, whose horns, ears, and legs were goatlike.

Metabus A chief of the Volsci, father of Camilla (q. v.).

Destinies In classical mythology, the Fates.

chthonian adj. In ancient mythology, pertaining to the gods and spirits of the underworld. Also chthonic.  [< Gk. chthōn the earth ]

lares and penates 1. The household gods. 2. The cherished belongings of one's household.

Phosphoros, Phosphorus [Gr. phōsphoros light bringer. See PHOSPHORUS.] Gr. Relig. An epithet of various deities associated with celestial luminaries, sometimes of the morning star; also, an epithet of Artemis or Hecate as a lunar deity.

Marsyas Greek mythology a satyr who challenged Apollo to contest in flute playing and was flayed alive when he lost.

Gyges Gk. Myth. 1. Also, Gyes. one of the Hecatonchires. 2. a shepherd who found a ring making its wearer invisible. Invited by the king of Lydia secretly to view his beautiful wife naked, Gyges was incited by her to kill the king and seize the throne. During his reign, allegedly, coinage was invented.

Amphithemis Class. Myth. a son of Apollo and Acacallis.

Euterpe The Muse of lyric song and music.

Pythian adj.1. Pertaining to Delphi, to Apollo's temple there, its oracle, or its priestess. 2. Relating to the Pythian games n.1. A native or inhabitant of Delphi. 2. The priestess of Apollo. 3. An epithet of the Delphic Apollo.  [< L Pythius < Gk. Pythios ]

sea horse 1. A marine fish ( genus Hippocampus ), having a prehensile tail and a head resembling that of a horse. 2. A walrus. 3. A fabulous animal, half horse and half fish, driven by Neptune. 4. A large, white-crested wave.

Pityocamptes ( " pine-bender " ). A name applied to the robber Sinis ( q. v.), who killed travelers by tying them between two pine-trees bent down so as nearly to meet, and then allowed to spring apart ( Pausan. ii. 1, 3 ).

Lua One of the early Italian divinities, to whom were dedicated the arms taken in battle ( Gell. xiii. 23, 1 ).

Actoridae Class. Myth. Moliones.

Briseis In the Iliad, a maiden captured by Achilles whose seizure by Agamemnon leads to a quarrel between the two men.

Titanism Defiance of or rebellion against constituted authority or social conventions, a characteristic attributed to the Titans in Greek mythology.

Sciron A famous robber who infested the frontier between Attica and Megaris. He not only robbed the travelers who passed through the country, but compelled them on the Scironian Rock to wash his feet, and then kicked them into the sea while they were thus employed. At the foot of the rock there was a tortoise, which devoured the bodies of the robber's victims. He was slain by Theseus ( Plut. Thes. 10 ). See THESEUS.

ambrosial adj.1. Of or like ambrosia; fragrant; delicious. 2. Worthy of the gods; heavenly. Also ambrosian ambrosially adv.

Telamon Class. Myth. an Argonaut and friend of Hercules, and the father of Ajax and Teucer.

Lilith 2. In Babylonian and Assyrian legend, a female demon who haunted desolate places.   [ < Hebrew Līlīth < Assyrian-Babylonian līlītu of the night]

manes 1. ( used with a plural v. ) Rom. Relig. the souls of the dead; shades. 2. ( used with a singular v. ) the spirit or shade of a particular dead person. Also, Manes.  [1350-1400; ME < L mānēs (pl.); akin to L mānis, mānus good]

satyr 1. In Greek mythology, a woodland deity in human form, having pointed ears, goat's legs, and budding horns, and of wanton nature.

bacchant n. pl. bacchants or bacchantes 1. A votary of Bacchus. 2. A carouser; reveler adj. Given to drunkeness.  [< L baccharis, -antis, ppr. of bacchari to celebrate the festival of Bacchus, carouse < Gk. bacchaien ]

Copia The goddess of plenty among the Romans, represented as bearing a horn filled with fruits, etc. See CORNU COPIAE.

Martian  [ L Martialis, pertaining to Mars, from Martis, god of war. ] relating to Mars, the god of war or to the planet Mars.

Amalthea In Greek mythology, the goat who suckled Zeus. One of her horns ( horn of Amalthea ) became the cornucopia or horn of plenty.

Cebrenis Daughter of Cebren, a river god in the Troad, from whom the town of Cebrené, the river Cebren, and the surrounding district, Cebrenia, took their names.

lycanthropy 1. In folklore, the power of turning one's self or another into a wolf. 2. A form of illness in which the patient imagines himself to be a wolf or other wild animal.  lycanthropic adj.

Pittheus A king of Troezen, and father of Aethra ( hence called Pittheïs ), the mother of Theseus (q.v.). He is said to have taught oratory, and even to have written a book on the subject ( Pausan. ii. 30, 8 ).

Laodice ( in the Iliad ) a daughter of Priam and Hecuba who chose to be swallowed up by the earth rather than live as a concubine.

Panopeus The son of Phocus and Asteropaea who accompanied Amphitryon on his expedition against the Taphians or Teleboans, and took an oath not to embezzle any part of the boote; but having broken his oath, he was punished by his son Epeus becoming nonwarlike. He is also mentioned among the Calydonian hunters ( Il. xxiii. 665 ). Cf. Pausan. ii. 25, 4; Ovid, Met. iii. 312.

Aërope Class. Myth. the wife of Atreus, seduced by her brother-in-law Thyestes.

Haemus The modern Balkans. A lofty range of mountains separating Thrace and Moesia. The pass over them most use in antiquity was in the western part of the range, called Succi or Succorum Augustiae, also Porta Traiani ( Sulu Derbend ), between Philippoplis and Serdica. The fabulous origin of the range is that Haemus and his wife Rhodopé were changed into mountains for daring to call themselves Zeus and Heré ( Ovid, Met. vi. 87 ).

Cenchritus A river of Ionia near Ephesus and Mount Solmissus, where the Curetes, according to some, concealed and protected Leto after her delivery, when she was pursued by the power of Heré

Hippocoön The son of Oebalus of Sparta and of the nymph Batea. He drove his brothers Tyndareus and Icarius from home. Afterwords in consequence of his slaying the young Oeonus, a kinsman of Heracles in alliance with King Cepheus of Tegea. Tyndareus was thereby restored to the inheritance of his father's kingdom.

Assarachus Son of Tros and founder of the collateral line to which Anchises and Aeneas belong to the royal house of Troy. See ANCHISES; AENEAS; DARDANUS.

Coroebus (1) A Phrygian, the son of Mygdon. He loved Cassandra, and for that reason fought on the side of the Trojans.

Polydamas (1) Son of Panthoüs and Phrontis. He was a Trojan hero, a friend of Hector, and brother of Euphorbus ( Il. xvi. 534 ).

Syrinx In Greek mythology, a nymph pursued by Pan and changed into a reed, from which Pan made his pipes.

Thestean banquet A cannibal feast; so called from the feast at which Thyestes was served his own sons. See ATREUS.

Tyndareus In Greek mythology, a king of Sparta and husband of Leda.

Cepheus In Greek legend, a king of Ethiopia, husband of Cassiopeia and father of Andromeda n. A constellation near Draco and Cassiopeia.

a-1964 Standard College Dictionary

M. E. XVII

Cressida In medieval legend, in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, and in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, a Trojan girl unfaithful to her lover Troilus: also spelled Criseyde. Also Cressid. See PANDARUS.

Iasis A name given to Atalanta ( q. v.), daughter of Iasus.

Dictaean adj. [L. Dictaeus, fr. Gr. Diktaios, fr. Diktē.] Gr. Geog. Pertaining to a cave ( Dicte ) in the Cretan mountain where the infant Zeus was tended by nymphs. The cave was the center of a prehistoric cult.

Althaea Class. Myth. wife of Oeneus and mother of Toxeus, Tydeus, Meleager, and Deianira.

Phaedra In Greek mythology, a daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë and wife of Theseus, who fell in love with her stepson Hippolytus and killed herself when he spurned her. Also Phædra.

halcyon 1. A legendary bird, identified with the kingfisher, supposedly able to charm the wind and sea into quiescence at the winter solstice so that it might breed in a nest on the water.

Iris In Greek mythology, the goddess of the rainbow, attendant of Zeus and Hera, and in Homer's Iliad, the messenger of the gods.

terpsichorean adj. Of or relating to dancing: also terpsichoreal. n. Informal A dancer.

Oceanid In Greek mythology, one of the 3, 000 sea nymphs, daughters of Oceanus and Tethys.  [< Gk. Ōkeanis, -idos ]

Sibylline Books A collection of nine books reputedly bought from the Cumaean sibyl by Tarquin the Proud and supposed to reveal the destiny of Rome.

Pierian Spring A spring in Pieria, supposed to give poetic inspiration to those who drank it.

Nephele Class. Myth. a woman formed from a cloud by Zeus as a counterfeit of Hera, in order to deceive the lustful Ixion: mother by Ixion of the centaurs.

Argonaut 1. In Greek legend, one who sailed with Jason in the Argo to find the Golden Fleece. 2. One who went to California in 1849 to hunt gold.  [< L Argonauta < Gk. Argonautēs < Argōs the ship + nautēs sailer ]  Argonautic adj.

Phlegethon In Greek mythology, the river of fire, one of the five rivers surrounding Hades.  [< Gk. Phlegethōn, lit. blazing ]

sea-maiden Poetic. A sea nymph or mermaid. Also sea-maid.

Hymnus A son of Saturn and Entoria. [See ENTORIA.]

Candybus A son of Deucalion, from whom Candyba, a town of Lycia, was believed to have received its name. ( Steph. Byz. s.v.)

Erechtheïs The well of salt water in the Acropolis at Athens ( Apollod. iii. 14. 1 ). See ERECHTHEUS.

Chariclo (1) A nymph, daughter of Apollo and wife of Chiron (q.v.). (2) A nymph, the mother of Tiresias (q. v.).

Febris The goddess, or rather the averter of fever (Val. Max.ii. 5, 6; Cic. N. D. iii. 25 ). She had three sanctuaries at Rome.

Ogygia In the Odyssey, Calypso's island.

Nilus The god of the river Nile in Egypt, is said to have been a son of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Memphis and Chione. (Hes. Theog. 338; Apollod. ii. 1. § 4; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 250.) Pindar ( Pyth. iv. 90 ) calls him a son of Cronos.

stygian adj. Often cap. 1. Of or pertaining to the river Styx. 2. Infernal; dark and gloomy. 3. Inviolable, as an oath.  [< L Stygius < Gk. Stygios < Styx Styx, prob. < stygein to hate ]

Arion [Gr. Areiōn.] Gr. Myth. A miraculously endowed horse horse, possessing the power of speech, offspring of Poseidon.

Hermes Trismegistus The Greek name for the Egyptian god Thoth regarded as the founder of alchemy, astrology, and other occult sciences.

Eleutherios [Gr., the Deliverer.] An epithet of Dionysus, and of Zeus, as a god who stes free a slave or a people; in Roman times often applied to the emperor.

Antedon [NL., fr. Gr. Anthēdōn, name of a nymph.]

Erymanthian Boar In Greek mythology, a savage boar captured alive by Hercules.

Camenae In Roman mythology, prophetic nymphs of springs or fountains, later identified with the Muses.

bacchante A female votary of Bacchus.  [< F< L bacchans, -antis. See BACCHANT. ]

lemures In ancient Roman religion, the shades or spirits of the dead; ghosts; spectres.  [< L ]

Euphrosyne Class. Myth. one of the Graces.   [< Gk: personification of euphrosýnē mirth, merriment]

Elysian adj. 1. Belonging to, or like, Elysium. 2. Blissful; delightful.

Phoebus In Greek mythology, Apollo as god of the sun. Also Phoebus Apollo n. Poetic The sun.

cyclopean adj.1. Usually cap. Of or pertaining to the Cyclops. 2. Gigantic: a cyclopean task. 3. Desgnating an ancient style of architecture characterized by the use of massive blocks of stone.

goddess 1. A female deity. 2. A woman or girl of extraordinary beauty.

Philemon In Greek mythology, the husband of Baucis.

Laius In Greek legend, a king of Thebes, husband of Jocasta, who was unwittingly killed by his son Oedipus.

Olenus The husband of Lethaea, and changed with her into a stone. He was the father of the nymphs Aegé and Halicé, who reared the infant Zeus.

a-1964 Standard College Dictionary

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

M. E. XVI

Hyacinthus In Greek mythology, a youth whom Apollo loved and accidently killed and from whose blood sprang a flower bearing the words of grief, AI, AI.

Polydorus [L., fr. Gr. Polydōros.] Gr. Antiq. The youngest son of Priam. According to Homer, he was slain by Achilles; in other accounts he was killed by Polymnestor. See HECUBA.

Polyxena In Greek legend, a daughter of Priam, betrothed to Achilles.

Horatius Cocles In Roman legend, a hero who with two comrades held the bridge over the Tiber against the Etruscan army.

Pierus In Greek mythology, a king of Thrace, father of the nine Pierides.

Midas In Greek legend, a king of Phrygia who had the power of turning whatever he touched into gold.

Aetolus Class. Myth. son of Endymion and founder of Aetolia.

Latmus A mountain in Caria, extending in a southeast direction from the Sinus Latmicus. It was the mythological scene of the story of Selené ( Luna ) and Endymion, who is hence called by the Roman poets Latmius heros and Latmius venator.

Metanira Class. Myth. queen of Eleusis, who took Demeter in to nurse her child. Also, Metaneira.

Seriphus Now Serpho; an island in the Aegean Sea, and one of the Cyclades. It is celebrated in mythology as the island where Danaë and Perseus were brought up, and where he afterwords turned the inhabitants into stone with the Gorgon's head. Seriphus was colonized by Ionians from Athens, and it was one of the few islands which refused submission to Xerxes. The island was employed by the Roman emperors as a place of banishment for State criminals ( Tac. Ann. ii. 85, iv. 21; Juv. x. 170 ).

Aegina 1. Class. Myth. a daughter of Asopus and Metope who was abducted by Zeus and bore him a son, Aeacus.

Libertas the ancient Roman personification of liberty.

Itonia, Itonias, or Itonis A surname of Athené, derived from the town of Iton, in the south of Phthiotis in Thessaly. Here the goddess had a celebrated sanctuary, and hence is called by the Roman poets incola Itoni.

Deïphobé The Sibyl at Cumae, daughter of Glaucus. See SIBYLLA.

Gerastus A promontory and harbour at the southern extremity of Euboea, with a celebrated temple of Poseidon ( Thuc. iii. 3 ).

Chalcedon 1. A son of Abas, king of the Chalcidians in Euboea. He was slain by Amphitryon in a battle against the Thebans, and his tomb was seen as late as the time of Pausanias. ( viii. 15 § 3; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 281.) 2. A Coan who wounded Heracles in a fight at night. ( Apollod. ii. 7. § 1.) Theocritus ( vii. 6 ) calls him Chalcon. 3. There are four other mythical personages of this name. ( Apollod. ii. 1. § 5, iii. 5. § 15; Paus. vi. 21. § 7, viii. 15. § 3; Hom. Il. 743 iv. 643.)

Amnisus The of a river in Crete, the father of the Amnisiades.

Onchestus (1) An ancient town of Boeotia, situated a little south of Lake Copaïs, near Haliartus, said to have been founded by Onchestus, son of Poseidon. (2) A river in Thessaly, flowing by Cynoscephalae, and falling into Lake Boeobeïs.

Deïonides Miletus. son of Deïoné by Apollo.

Orthia A name given to Artemis, as worshipped at Lemnaeum, in Laconia, where boys were severely scourged at her altar ( Pausan. iii. 16, 7 ). See DIAMASTIGOSIS.

Nisyrus A small island in the Carpathian Sea, off Caria. Its volcanic nature gave rise to the fable respecting its origin that Poseidon tore it off the neighbouring island of Cos to hurl it upon the giant Polybotes. ( See POLYBOTES ). It is now Nikero.

Crinisus One of the many Greek river gods.

Delphus A son of Apollo and Celaeno, who, according to one account, was the founder of Delphi ( Pausan. x. 6 ).

Ceryon Son of Poseidon or of Hephaestus. A cruel tyrant at Eleusis, who put to death his daughter Alopé and killed all strangers whom he overcome in wrestling. He was, in the end, conquered by Theseus ( q. v.).

Zoné A town of Thrace, where Orpheus is said to have sung ( Herod. vii. 59 ).

Ocyrhoë (1) A daughter of the Centaur Chiron, who possessed the gift of prophecy. She is said to have been changed into a mare. (2) A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.

Troy 1. The site of nine superimposed ruined cities in NW Asia Minor. The seventh stratum, a Phrygian city of perhaps about 1200 B. C. the scene of the Iliad, was also called Ilium, Ilion. 2. A city in eastern New York, on the Hudson River; pop. 67, 492.

Pleiad 1. One of the Pleiades. 2. One of any cluster of brillient persons, usually seven.

Nemertinea Also Nermertina, Nemertini [NL., fr. Gr. Nēmertēs, name of a Nereid, fr. nēmertēs unerring.]

bassarid [Gr. bassaris, -idos.] A Thracian maenad. Cf. ORPHEUS.

Myconus A small island in the Aegean Sea, one of the Cyclades, east of Delos, is celebrated in mytholoygy as one of the places where the giants were defeated by Heracles. The island was populary supposed to contain an unusual number of bald persons ( Pliny, H. N. xi. 130 ).

Ajax 1. Also called Great Ajax, Telamonian Ajax. Class. Myth. a Greek hero in the Trojan War who rescued the body of Achilles and killed himself out of jealousy when Odysseus was rewarded the armor of Achilles. 2. Also called Ajax the Lesser. Class. Myth. a Locrian king, noted for his fighting during the Trojan War, who was said to have been killed in a shipwreck as punishment for violating a shrine of Athena. 3. ( italics) a tragedy ( c440 B. C.) by Sophocles.

Pierides 1. In Greek mythology, the nine Muses. 2. The nine daughters of Pierus, vanquished by the Muses in a musical contest and changed into magpies.

Africus The Roman name for the southeast wind, which the Greeks called λιψ, and given to it because it blew off the coast of Africa.

Elatus One of the Lapithae and father of Polyphemus and of Caeneus, who is hence called Elateius.

water nymph In classical mythology, any nymph or goddess living in or guarding a body of water; a naiad, Nereid, Oceanid, etc.

Orcus In Roman mythology: a The abode of the dead. b Pluto or Dis, the god of the underworld.

Amyclaean adj. [L. Amyclaeus,  fr. Gr. Amyklaios.] Of or pert. to Amyclae, a town of ancient Laconia. the Amyclaean brothers. Castor and Polydeuces ( Pollux ), said to have been born at Amyclae.

Consus [L.] Rom. Relig. An early Italian god of the earth and its harvests.

mercurial adj. 3. Often cap. Of or pertaining to the god Mercury or the planet Mercury.

naiad In classical mythology, one of the water nymphs who were believed to dwell in and preside over fountains, brooks, springs, lakes, and wells.

Autonoë [L., fr. Gr. Autonoē.] Gr. Myth. Daughter of Cadmus and mother of Actaeon.

Hippolyta In Greek mythology, a queen of the Amazons whose girdle Hercules obtained as one of his twelve labors: also called Antiope.

Troilus In Greek legend, a son of Priam killed by Achilles; in medieval legend, Chaucer's Troilus and Crisseyde, and in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, Cressida's lover.

Cumaean sibyl In Roman legend, a sibyl dwelling in Cumae, who prophesied to Aeneas and brought the Sibylline books to Rome.

Hespere Class. Myth. one of the Hesperides.

faun In Roman mythology, a woodland deity typically represented as a man having the ears, horns, tail, and hind legs of a goat.  [< L Faunus, a rural god < favere to be kindly disposed ]

Circean adj.1. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Circe. 2. Bewitching and degrading.

thyrsus 1. A staff wreathed in ivy and crowned with a pine cone or a bunch of ivy leaves, as carried by Dionysus and the satyrs. 2. Bot. A type of mixed inflorescence in which the middle branches are longer than those above or below them, as in the lilae and grape: also called thyrse.  [< L< Gk. thyrsos ]

Amphictyon Class. Myth. a son of Deucalion and Pyrrha who seized the throne of Attica and who, in devising a plan for avoiding disputes at his council meetings, became the first man to mix water with wine.

vestal Rom. Myth. One of the girls or women who tended the fire in the temple of Vesta in Rome, remaining virgins during their office.

Benthesicyme A daughter of Poseidon and Amphitrite. She was the wife of the Ethiopian king Enalus. [ See EUMOLPUS.]

a-1964 Standard College Dictionary

M. E. XV

Andromeda Galaxy Astron. a spiral galaxy, appearing to the naked eye as a fuzzy oval patch in the constellation Andromeda; it is a close neighbor to our galaxy.

Ossa A mountain in eastern Thessaly, Greece; 6, 490 ft; in Greek mythology, the giant sons of Poseidon attempted to scale Olympus by piling Pelion on Ossa.

Alexiacacus Class. Myth. an epithet of Apollo, meaning " averter of evil," in reference to his dispelling a plague that afflicted the Athenian forces in the Peloponnesian War.

Icarian Sea In ancient times, the Aegean Sea off the coast of Asia Minor, where Icarus was supposed to have drowned.

Labdacus A son of Polydorus by Nycteïs, the daughter of Nycteus, king of Thebes. His father and mother died during his childhood, and he was left to the care of Nycteus, who, at his death, left his kingdom in the hands of Lycus, with orders to restore it to Labdacus as soon as of age. On succeeding to the throne, Labdacus, like Pentheus ( q.v.), opposed the cult of Bacchus, and underwent a similar fate. He was father to Laïus, and his descendants were called Labdacidae. See LAÏUS.

Appias A nymph of the Appian Well in the Forum of Iulius Caesar, near the temple of Venus Genetrix, and surrounded by statues of nymphs called Appiades. a name also given to prostitutes living in that vicinity ( Ovid, A. A. ii. 452 ).

Niflheim In Norse mythology, the world of eternal chill, fog, and darkness; the realm of Hel. Also Nifelheim. [< ON < nifl fog + heimr world ]

Niobe In Greek mythology, the mother whose children were killed by Apollo and Artemis after she had vaunted their superiority to Leto. She was turned by Zeus into a stone from which tears continued to flow.

Antilochus [L., fr. Gr. Antilochus.] A son of Nestor and friend of Achilles, to whom he broke the news of Patroclus's death ( Iliad XVIII ).

Manto (1) The daughter of the seer Tiresias, and herself a prophetess, at first of the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes. After the capture of the town by the Epigoni she was presented to the oracle at Delphi as part of the booty, and sent by the god to Asia, in order to found the oracle of the Clarian Apollo in the neighbourhood of what was afterwords Colophon. Here she bore Mopsus ( q. v.) to the Cretan seer Rhacius. (3) The daughter of Heracles and also a prophetess. From her the town of Mantua received its name ( Verg. Aen. x. 199 ).

Belus [L., fr. Gr. Bēlus.] 1. Class. Myth. a A son of Libya, father of Aegyptus, Danaüs, Cepheus, and Phineus. b A king of Tyre, father of Dido. 2. A legendary king of Assyria, father of Ninus.

Damia Class. Myth. a spirit of fertility.

Alcimedon Class. Myth.1. an Arcadian hero whose daughter, Philao, was seduced by Hercules. 2. ( in the Iliad ) a son of Laerces who was a captain of the Myrmidons under Patroclus.

Leucosia or Leucasia The modern Piana; a small island in the south of the Gulf of Paestum, off the coast of Lucania, said to have been called after one of the Sirens.

Ino Class. Myth. a sea goddess who rescued Odysseus from drowning by giving him a magic veil.

Scilla A town at the NE end of the Strait of Messina, southern Italy, on a small promontory supposed to be the site of the cave of the legendary Scylla.

Timandra 1. A daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, and the wife of Echemus, by whom she became the mother of Euandrus. (Apollod. iii. 10.§ 6; Paus. viii. 5. & 1; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130.) 2. Another mythical figure personage of this name is mentioned by Antonius Liberalis (5).

Naubolus 1. A son of Lernus and the father of Clytoneus, was king of Tanagra in Boeotia. (Apollod. Rhod. i. 135, &c., 208 Orph. Argon. 144. ; Lycoph. 1068.) 2. A son of Ornythus, and father of Iphitus, was king of Phocis. (Hom. Il. ii. 518; Apollod. i. 9. § 16.)

Telegonus In Greek legend, the son of Odysseus and Circe, who unknowingly killed his father in Ithaca and married Penelope, his father's widow.

Eleusis In Greek mythology, the son of Hermes.

Palamedes [L., fr. Gr. Palamēdēs.] A hero of the Trojan War ( in post-Homeric poets ) who was slain treacherously by the Greeks, or, accordin to one version, by Odysseus in revenge for Palamedes's detection of his feignec madness.

Talaüs The son of Bias and Pero, and king of Argos. He was married to Lysimaché ( Eurynomé or Lysianassa ), and was father of Adrastus, Parthenopaeus, Pronax, Mecistus, Aristomachus, and Eriphylé. The patronymic Talaionides is given to his sons Adrastus, and Mecistus ( Il. ii. 566 ).

Acestes [L., form of Gr.  Aigēstes.] Gr. Myth. A son of a river god and a Trojan woman, who appears in the Aeneid.

goat-god The god Pan.

Agamedes Son of Ergius of Orchomenus, and a famous builder, with his brother Trophonius ( q.v.).

Endymion In Greek mythology, a beautiful youth loved by Selene and granted eternal youth through eternal sleep.

Charybdis In Greek mythology, a monster dwelling in a whirlpool on the Sicilian coast opposite the cave of Scylla; also, the whirlpool. See SCYLLA.

Entellus A Sicilian who, though advanced in years, entered the lists against the Trojan Dares and conquered him in a pugillistic encounter ( Verg. Aen. v. 387. foll.).

Sisyphean adj.1 Of or pertaining to Sisyphus. 2. Difficult and intermediate: a Sisyphean task.

Aegides A patronymic applied to Theseus, son of Aegeus.

Metis Class. Myth. a Titaness, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys and the mother of Athena by Zeus. Zeus swallowed Metis, and Athena was born from his head.

Nestor In Greek legend, a king of Pylos and one of the Argonauts, the oldest and wisest Greek chief in the Trojan War.  n. Any wise old man.

Midgard serpent Scand. Myth. a serpent, the child of Loki and Angerboda, who lies wrapped around the world, tail in mouth, and destined to kill and to be killed by Thor at Ragnarok; Jormungand.

echidna [L., a viper, fr. Gr. echidna.] 1. [cap.] Gr. Myth. A monster, half woman, half serpent, mother of the Sphinx, the Chimeras, and other monsters.

Hellen [Gr. Hellēn.] a Gr. Myth. The eponymous founder of the Hellenic race. He was a son of Deucalion; his sons, Aeolus and Dorus, were ancestors of the Aeolians and Dorians respectively. A third son, Xuthus, was stepfather of Ion, ancestor of the Ionians. b Var. of HELLEN.

Vica Pota [L.,  fr. vicere to conquer + potiri to gain power over.] Rom. Relig. A goddess of victory, one of the di indigetes ( see DI ).

Lichas [Gr.] Gr. Myth. A friend and companion of Hercules, who brought him the fatal tunic sent by DeiAnita, and was thrown into the sea by Hercules. See HERCULES.

Acastus [L., fr. Gr. Akastos.] Gr. Myth. One of the Argonauts, the son of King Pelias of Iolcus.

mormo [Gr. mormō. See FORMIDABLE.] Gr. Myth. An imaginary bugbear; esp., a hideous she-monster with which mothers or nurses frighten children.

favonian adj.1. Of or relating to Favonius. 2. Soft and gentle: a favonian breeze; also, propitious.

Querquetulanae Or Querquctultanae virae, nymphs presiding over the green oak forests, near the porta quequetularia, or quequetulana, were believed to be possessed of prophetic powers. ( Festus, p. 261, ed. Müller; Plin. H. N. xvi. 10, 15. § 37.) It should be observed that the  word vira is the feminine of vir, and signifies women. Hence virugo or viryo.

Methymna A daughter of Macar and wife of Lesbus, from whom the town of Methymna derived its name. ( Diod. v. 81; Steph. Byz. s. v.

Nereid In Greek mythology, one of the fifty daughters of Nereus, sea nymphs who attend Poseidon.   [< L Nereis, -idis < Gk. Nērēis < Nēreus ]

Tartarus 1. In Greek mythology, the abyss below Hades where Zeus confined the Titans. 2. Hades; hell.

Iolcus An ancient city in Thessaly, NE Greece, near modern Volos; traditionally the home of Jason.

Horatii In Roman legend, three Roman brothers who fought and killed the Curiatii, three brothers from Alba Longa.

Pieria A coastal region of ancient Macedon, at the base of Mount Olympus, legendary birthplace of the nine Muses.  Pierian adj.

Amphrysian adj. Of or pert. to the Amphrysus, a river of Thessaly; hence, pert. to Apollo, who fed the herds of Admetus near this river ( See ALCESTIS ).

Cadmeïs An ancient name of Boeotia ( q.v.), and of Thebes ( Hes. Op. 161 ). It is also applied to Semelé ( q.v.).

a-1964 Standard College Dictionary

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

M. E. XIV

Aenus (1) A town in Thrace, near the mouth of the Hebrus, said by Vergil to have been founded by Aeneas. (2) A river in Rhaetia, now the Inn.

Cydippe [L., fr. Gr. Kydippē.] 1. Gr.& Rom. Myth. An Athenian maiden at whose feet a lover, Acontius, threw an apple bearing the words "I swear by the sanctuary of Artemis that I will wed Acontius." Having read the words aloud she was held by the goddess as pledged to Acontius.

Erechtheus [L., fr. Gr. Erechtheus, lit., the Render, fr. erechthein to rend, break.] Gr. Myth. A king of Athens, son of Gaea and Hephaestus. He was the reputed founder of the Erechtheum, the founder of the Panathenaea, and the inventor of the four-wheeled chariot. In obediance to an oracle he sacrificed his youngest daughter to save Athens from the Eleusinians. Cf. ERICHTHONIUS.

Taenarus A son of Elatus and Erimede, from whom the promontory and town of Taenarum, in Laconia, were believed to have their name. ( Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 102; comp. Paus. iii. 14.§ 2; Steph. Byz. s.c.)

Lamedon A son of Coronus, and husband of Pheno, by whom he became the father of Zeuxippe. He was the successor of Epopeus in the kingdom of Sicyon. ( Paus. ii. 5, in fin., 6, 2.)

Anadyomené An epithet of Aphrodité ( q.v.)

Polymestor A Thracian king. He murdered Polydorus, the son of Priam, who had been intrusted to his protection, and was blinded by Hecuba and the captive Trojan women. See POLYDORUS.

Cerealia 2. in Roman antiquities, festivals in honor of Ceres, the goddess of agriculture.

Phegeus A king of Psophis in Arcadia. He was the father of Arsinoë, Pronous, Agenor, Temonus, and Axion. He purified Alcmaeon ( q. v.) after he had slain his mother and gave him Arsinoë ( or Alphesiboea ) in marriage. Alcmaeon presented her with the necklace and peplus of Harmonia; but wishing to get them back for his new wife, Callirrhoë; He was slain by the sons of Phegeus at their father's bidding. The sons of Alcmaeon then put Phegeus to death ( Pausan. vii. 17; ix. 41, 2; Apollod. iii. 7, 6 ).

Janus-faced 1. having two faces, one looking forward, one looking backward, as the Roman deity Janus.

Tritonis ( in ancient geography ) a mythical lake near the Mediterranean coast of Libya.

Lavinia Rom. Legend. the daughter of Latinus and  second wife of Aeneas. 2. a female given name.

Orion In Greek and Roman mythology, a giant hunter who pursued the Pleiades and was killed by Diana n. A constellation, containing the bright star Rigel.  [ < L< Gk. ]

Apollonian adj.1. Gk. & Rom. Myth. Of or relating to Apollo or his cult. 2. Often apollonian. Clear, harmonious, and restrained.

Postverta or Postvorta A goddess presiding over childbirth who was invoked when the infant was born feet first ( Varro, ap. Gell. xvi. 16, 4 ). See ANTEVORTA; CARMENTA.

Alcaids Class. Myth. the descendants of Alcaeus.

Iacchus The solemn name of Bacchus in the Lesser Eleusinian Mysteries, whose name was derived from the boisterous song called Iacchus. In these mysteries Iacchus  was regarded as the son of Zeus and Demeter, and was distinguished from the Theban Bacchus ( Dionysus ), the son of Zeus and Semelé. In some traditions Iacchus is even called a son of Bacchus, but in others the two are identified. See the chapter on " Dionysus at Athens" in Dyer's Gods in Greece ( Lond. and N. Y. 1891 ); and the articles DIONYSUS; ELEUSINIA.

Zeuxippe 1. The wife of Pandion, the king of Attica, and mother of Erechtheus, Butes, Procne and Philomela ( Table 11 ). She was the sister-in-law of her own mother, the Naiad Praxithea, who married Erechtheus. 2. The daughter of Lamedon, King of Sicyon ( Table 22 ). She married Sicyon, by whom she had a daughter Chthonophyle. 3. The daughter of Hippocoon. She married Antiphates, the son of Melampus, and by him had two sons: Oecles and Amphalces ( Table 1 ).

Melanthius (1) A goat-herd of Odysseus.

Iphitus Class. Myth. a son of Eurytus, thrown to his death off the walls of Tiryns by Hercules. Also, Iphitos.

Ammonian horn, the Gr. Myth. a A horno f plenty. b A horn-shaped tract of fertile land given by Ammon, king of Libya, to Amalthaea, the mother of Bacchus.

Idothea [NL., fr. Gr. Eidothea a sea goddess.]

Tegeates A son of Lycaon, and the reputed founder of Tegea in Arcadia. ( Paus. viii. 3. § 1, 45. § 1.) His tomb was shown at Tegea. ( Paus. viii. 48 § 4.).

Ocypete The name of two mythical beings, one a Danaid, and the other a Harpy. ( Apollod. ii. 1. § 5; Hes. Theog. 267.)

Haliacmon A son of Oceanus and Tethys, was a river god of Macedonia. ( Hes. Theog. 341.; Strab. vii. p. 330.).

Panophaeus The author of all signs and omens; a surname of Zeus ( Il. viii. 250 ).

Aex (1) A rocky island between Telos and Chios, so called from its having the shape of a goat ( cîξ ). (2) The goat Amalthea ( q. v.) that suckled Zeus, and became a constellation under the name of Aex.

Ialmenus The son of Ares and Astyoché and brother of Ascalaphus. He was one of the Argonauts and a suiter of Helen. After the destruction of Troy, he wandered about with his followers, the Orchomenians, and founded colonies in Colchis.

Epopeus [Gr. Epōpeus.] Gr. Myth. The king of Sicyon with whom Antiope found refuge.

Pactolus [L., fr. Gr. Paktōlos.] A river of Lydia in Asia Minor which yielded gold-bearing sand. A Greek legend attributed the gold to Midas, who by bathing in the river was freed from the curse of the golden touch ( See MIDAS).

Alebion Class. Myth. a son of Poseidon who, with his brother Dercynus, was killed by Hercules while attempting to steal the cattle that Hercules had taken from Geryon. Also Albion.

Icaris and Icariotis Names given to Penelopé, as daughter of Icarius.

Aulis An ancient town in Boeotia, on the Gulf of Euboea; traditional site of the embarkation of the Greeks for the Trojan War.

Alexandra 2. Class. Myth. Cassandra ( def. 1).

Antinous In the Odyssey, the most insistant of Penelope's suiters and the first to be slain by Odysseus.

Dolius A slave of Penelopé who, with his six sons, welcomed Odysseus home and joined him against the suiters ( Odys. xxiv. 498 ).

Hypseus A son of Peneüs and Creüsa. He was king of the Lapithae ( q.v.) and father of Cyrené.

Melia A nymph, daughter of Oceanus, who became by Inachus the mother of Phoroneus and Aegialeus; by Silenus, the mother of the centaur Pholus ( q. v.); by Poseidon the mother of Amycus; and by Apollo, the mother of Ismenus and of the prophet Tenerus. She was worshipped at Thebes in the Ismenium.

Cranaë The island to which Paris first carried Helen from Peloponnesus. Its location is uncertain, but some identify it with Cythera.

Alcon Class. Myth.1. a noted archer who helped Hercules abduct the cattle of Geryon. 2. a Trojan warrior who wounded Odysseus whil trying to seize the body of Achilles and who was later killed by Odysseus.

Icarus In Greek mythology, the son of Daedalus, who, escaping with his father from Crete by means of artificial wings, flew so high that the sun melted the wax that fastened the wings and he fell into the sea and drowned.  Icarian adj.

Eucleia A festival celebrated at Corinth in honour of Artemis. It is mentioned only by Xenophon ( Hell. iv. 4 & 2 ), and no particulars are known about it.

Atlantean adj.1. Pertaining to Atlas. 2. Pertaining to Atlantis. Also Atlantian.

a-1898 Harper's Dict. of Class. Literature & Antiquities

Saturday, November 24, 2012

M. E. XIII

Melissa 1. Class. Myth. the sister of Amalthea who nourished the infant Zeus with honey. 2. Also, Melisse, Melissy a female given name.

Abas An early king of Argos; great-grandfather of Perseus. He was a special favorite of Hera who blessed his shield, making it resistant to any sword-stroke. Thus favored by the goddess, Abas proved himself a fearsome warrior. His reputation persisted after his death, and the very sight of his shield, it is said, carried by one of his descendants, was enough to strike fear into the foes of Argos.

Batea 1. A Naiad, mother by Oebalus of Tyndareus, Hippocoon, and Icarion. 2. Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus, mother of Ilus and Erichthonius.

Eteoclus Class. Myth. one of the Seven against Thebes.

Matuta Also Mater Matuta. [L. See MATURE.] Rom. Relig. An ancient Italian goddess of the dawn, and hence of birth, orig. associated with Janus.

Abantes [Gr.] A tribe early dominant in ancient Euboea; in Homer the Euboeans.

Laias A son of Oxylus and Pieria, king of Elis. ( Paus. v. 4 § 4, &c.; comp. AETOLUS. No. 2. ).

Gortys 1. A son of Stymphalus, and founder of the Arcadian town of Gortys. ( Paus. viii. 4 § 5.). 2. A son of Tegeates and Maera, who, according to an Arcadian tradition, built the town of Gortyn, in Crete. The Cretans regarded him as a son of Rhadamanthys. ( Paus. viii. 53. § 2.).

Pronax The son of Talaüs and Lysimaché and brother of Adrastus and Eriphylé. By some the Nemean Games were said to have been held in his honour.

Ledaea A epithet given to Hermioné, and sometimes to Helen, and others, as related to Leda ( Verg. Aen. iii. 378 ).

Polidalirius The son of Asclepius and Epioné. Like his brother Machaon ( q.v. ), physician to the Greeks before Troy, and a brave warrior besides. He was honoured as a hero at Mount Dria.

Cloanthus One of the companions of Aeneas, from whom the family of the Cleuntii, at Rome claimed descent ( Verg. Aen. v. 127 ).

Junonian pertaining to, or having the characteristics of Juno.

Erysichthon Ερυσιχθων ) " Render of the earth." The son of the Thessalian king Triopas, who cut down trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for which he  was punished by the goddess with a fearful hunger, that caused him to devour his own flesh ( Ovid, Met. viii. 738; Callim. Hymn. in Dem. 34 foll ).

Aesacus The son of Priam and Alexirrhoë, who fell in love with Hesperia, the daughter of Ceban. While he was pursuing her, she was stung by a viper and died, Aesacus in his grief threw himself into the sea, and was changed by Thetis into an aquatic bird ( Ovid, Met. xi. 750 ).

Elymus A natural son of Anchises and brother of Eryx; one of the Trojans who fled from Troy to Sicily. With the aid of Aeneas they built the towns of Aegesta and Elymé. The Trojans who settled in that part of Sicily called themselves Elymi, after Elymus.

Callianassa one of the daughters of Nereus, mentioned in the Iliad.

Gordian knot 1. A knot supposed to have been tied by Gordius, legendary king of Phrygia, and declared by an oracle to be capable of being undone by the man who should rule Asia. Alexander the Great cut the knot in two with his sword. 2. Any difficulty that can be solved by drastic measures. to cut the Gordian knot to solve a problem or difficulty by drastic measures.

Sardus A son of Maceris, and leader of a colony from Libya to Sardinia, which as believed to have derived its name from him. (Paus. x. 17. § 1.) 

Lampedo (1) A Lacedaemonian woman, wife of Archidamas II., king of Sparta, and mother of Agis. She was regarded as being the daughter, wife, sister, and mother of a king. (2) A queen of the Amazons ( Justin, ii. 4 ).

Aeoliae Insulae A group of islands northeast of Sicily, where Aeolus, the god of the winds, reigned. These islands were also called Hephaestiades or Vulcaniae, because Hephaestus or Vulcan was believed to have his workshop in one of them called Hiera. They were also named Liparenses, from Lipara, the largest of them.

Phaon [L., fr. Gr. Phāon.] In Greek legend, a boatman of Mytilene. Sappho is fabled 5o have leaped from the Leucadian rock because her love for him was not required. He is said to have been originally an ugly old man, but to have been given youth and beauty by Aphrodite for not accepting pay when he carried her across the sea.

Hylas [L., fr. Gr. Hylas.] Gr. Myth. A beautiful youth loved by Hercules. He accompanied Hercules on the Argo nautical expedition and was drawn down by the nymphs while drawing water at a Mysia spring.

Ouranos Class. Myth. Uranus ( def. 2).

Trito or Tritogenia A surname of Athené, derived by some from Lake Tritonis in Libya, by others from the stream Triton near Alacomenae in Boeotia; and by the grammarians from τριτώ, which, in the dialect of the Athamanias, is said to signify " head "( cf. Il. v. 875; Apollod. i. 3, 6 ). See ATHENÉ.

Medus Son of Aegeus and Medea ( q. v. ).

Pholoë A mountain forming the boundary between Arcadia and Elis; mentioned as one of the abodes of the Centaurs. See PHOLUS.

maenad 1. a Bacchante, a priestess of Bacchus. 2. a notous or frenzied woma.

Plutonian adj.1. Of or pertaining to Pluto and the lower world. 2. Plutonic ( def. 2. ).  [ < L Plutonius < Gk. Ploutonios Ploutōn Pluto ]

Aegialea (1) The wife of Diomedé, to whom she is said to have been grossly unfaithful during his absence in the Trojan War. ( See DIOMEDES ).

bucentaur 2. A mythical monster, half bull and half man. [< Ital. bucentoro, ? < Med. Gk. boukentauros bucentaur < Gk. bous bull + kentauros centaur; def. 1 with ref. to the vessel's figurehead ]

Triopas A son of Poseidon and Canacé, a daughter of Aeolus, or of Helios ( the Sun ) and Rhodos, and the father of Iphimedia and Erysichthon. Hence his son Erysichthon is called Triopeïus, and his granddaughter Mestra or Metra, the daughter of Erysichthon, Triopeïs. He is said to have expelled the Pelasgians from a part of Thessaly, but was himself at last obliged to leave the country, when he went to Caria, in Asia Minor and founded Cnidus, hence called TRIOPIA ( Herod. i, 74; Apollod. i. 7, 4; Diod. v. 56 ). He or his son Erysichthon violated the sacred grove of Demeter, for which he was punished with endless hunger.

Cupid's bow 1. a classical bow Cupid is traditionally pictured as bearing. 2. a line or shape resembling the, esp. the line of the upper lip.

Sirius 1. Astron. the Dog Star, the brightest-appearing star in the heavens, located in the constellation Canis Major. 2. Also, Seirios. Class. Myth. a. the dog of Orion. b. Icarius' faithful dog, who was changed into a star.  [1325-75; ME < L Sīrius < Gk Seirios]

Talassio a god invoked at ancient Roman weddings, esp. in epithalamions.

Tros The son of Erichthonius and Astyoché, and grandson of Dardanus. He was married to Callirrhoë, by whom he became the father of Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes, and was  king of Phrygia. The country and people of Troy derived their name from him.( See TROIA.) He gave up his son Ganymedes to Zeus for a present of horses.

Ichthyes The fish of the constellation Pisces. They ferried Aphrodite and Eros to safety when the gods fled from the monster Typhon.

Mariandynus 1. A son of Phineus, Titius, or Phrixus, was the ancestral hero of the Mariandynians in the Bithynia. ( Schol. ad Apollon. ii. 723, 748.) 2. It also occurs as a surname of Bormus. ( Aeschyl. Pers. 938; comp. BORMUS.)

Actaeon In Greek mythology, a hunter who surprised Aremis bathing and was turned by her into a stag and killed by his own hounds.

Moneta 2. ( in Roman religion ) an epithet of Juno.

Hipponoüs The original name of Bellerophon, who changed it on slaying the Corinthian Bellerus.

Praxithea a daughter of Phrasimus and Diogenia, was the wife of Erechtheus, and mother of Cecrops, Pandorus, Metion, Orneus, Procris, Creusa, Chthonia, and Orithyia.

Heracles Hercules. Also Herakles Heraclean adj.

Hippothoön An Attic hero, son of Poseidon and Alopé, daughter or Cercyon. After him one of the Attic tribes was called Hippothoonis. He had a shrine at Athens.

Clusius A surname of Ianus, whose temple was closed ( clusum ) in peace.

Sirenusae Called by Vergil ( Aen. v. 854 ) SIRENUM SCOPULI. Three small uninhabited and rocky islands near the south site of the Promontory Misenum, off the coast of Campania, which were, according to tradition, the abode of the Sirens. See SIRENES.

Adrastus Class. Myth. a king of Argos and leader of the Seven against Thebes. Also, Adrastos.

Carpus A son of Zephyrus and Chloris.

Rhodos, sometimes called Rhodé A daughter of Poseidon and Helia, or of Helios and Amphitrité, or of Poseidon and Amphitrité, or lastly of Oceanus. From her the island of Rhodes is said to have derived its name, and in this island she bore to Helios seven sons ( Pind. Ol. vii.72 ).

Curotrophos " Nurse of children." The title of several Greek goddesses  for instance, Gaea  who were regareded as protectresses of youth. Cf. Hesiod, Theog. 450; Macrob. Saturn. i.10, 19, 20.

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Nysaen Nymphs Class. Myth. the nymphs who cared for the infant Dionysus on Nysa. Also called Nyseides.

Aras 2. Class. Myth. the first king of Phliasia.

Iphias Evadné, a daughter of Iphis, and wife of Capaneus.

Chrysaor Son of Poseidon and Medusa, brother of Pegasus, and father of the three headed giant Geryon and Echidna by the ocean nymph Callirrhoë.

Sospita " the saving goddess." A surname of Iuno at Lanuvium and at Rome, in both of which places she had a temple. See IUNO.

Cyllarus A beautiful Centaur, killed at the wedding-feast of Pirithoüs ( q. v. ).

Achates In Vergil's Aeneid, the faithful friend of Aeneas n. Any loyal companion.

Lamia In Greek mythology, a queen of Libya, beloved of Zeus, who was robbed of her children by Hera and took revenge by killing the children of others.

Floralia in Roman mythology, festive ceremonies held in honor of Flora.

Orpheus In Greek mythology, the son of a Muse ( usually Calliope ), whose singing to the lyre could charm beasts and even rocks and trees. When his wife Eurydice died, he was permitted to lead her back from Hades provided he did not turn to look at her until they had arrived in the upper world, but he did look back and she was lost.  Orphean adj.

Leros A small island, one of the Sporades, opposite to the mouth of the Sinus Iassius, on the coast of Caria ( Herod. v. 125 ). Here the sisters of Meleager were said to have been transformed into guinea pigs ( μελεαγιδεζ ). See MELEAGER.

Laomedontiadae A patronymic given to the Trojans from Laomedon ( q. v. ) their king ( Verg. Aen. iii. 248 ).

Tlepolemus A son of Heracles by Astyoché, daughter of Phylas, or by Astydamia, daughter of Amynor. He was king of Argos, but, after slaying his uncle Licymnius, he was obliged to take flight, and, in conformity with the command of an oracle, he settled in Rhodes, where he built the towns of Lindos, Ialysus, and Camiras. He joined the Greeks in the Trojan War with nine ships, but was slain by Sarpedon ( Il. ii. 658; v. 627 ).

Leuca A town at the extremity of the Iapygian Promontory in Calabria with a foul-smelling spring, under tradition made the giants slain by Heracles to have been buried ( Strabo, p. 281 ).

Arcas Class. Myth. a son of Zeus and Callisto, the ancestor of the Arcadians who was set among the stars with his mother as the Little Bear and the Greater Bear respectively.

Caeculus [L.] Rom. Myth. A son of Vulcan and founder of Praeneste.

Tydides Greek Legend. Diomedes.

Pelides the daughters of Pelias ( q. v. ).

Iasus 1. An Arcadian, son of Lycurgus and Cleophile or Eurynome, brother of Ancaeus, husband of Clymene, the daughter of Minyas, and father of Atalanta. He is likewise called Iasius and Iasion. 2. Father of Amphion, and king of the Minyans. 3. Son of Triopas, grandson of Phorbas, brother of Agenor, and father of Io, according to one account, was king of Argos. 4. Son of Sphelus, a leader of the Athenians before Troy, slain by Aeneas.

Glaucus [L., fr. Gr. Glaukos.] 1. Gr. Myth. a A sea divinity who became immortal by tasting magic grass. He is said to have been the helmsman of the Argo. b A son of Sisyphus, torn to pieces by his own mares. c A son of Minos and Pasiphaë, smothered by falling into a vessel of honey, but afterwords restored to life. d A Lycian prince, an ally of the Trojans, who, meeting Diomedes in battle, as a mark of the ancient friendship of their houses, exchanged his golden armor for the brazen armor of Diomedes, -an act proverbial for an unequal exchange.

Hyllus Son of Hercules by Deianira. For details, vid. Heraclidae.

Picus an ancient Italian god of agriculture.

Ascanius In Roman legend, son of Aeneas and Creusa and ancestor of the Caesars: also called Iulus.

Semele In Greek mythology, the mother of Dionysus by Zeus. She was destroyed by lightning when she asked to see Zeus as he appeared to the gods.

Euphorbus A Trojan, son of Panthoüs, renowned for his valour. He wounded Patroclus, and was killed by Menelaüs ( Il. xvii. 60 ). Pausanias relates ( ii.17 ) that in the temple of Heré, near Mycenae, a votive shield was shown, said to that of Euphorbus, suspended there by Menelaus. Pythagoras, who maintained the transmigration of souls, declared that, in the time of the Trojan War, his soul had animated the body of Euphorbus; and as a proof of the truth of his assertion, he is said to have gone into the temple where the shield was hanging, and to have recogized and taken it down ( Hor. Carm. 28. ii ).

Otus One of the two Aloadae. See ALOADAE.

Oileus The son of Hodoedocus and Laonomé, grandson of Cynus, and great-grandson of Opus, was a king of the Locrians, and married to Eriopis, by whom he became the father of Aiax, who is hence called Oilides, Oïliades, and Aiax Oilei. Oileus was also the father of Medon by Rhené. He is mentioned among the the Argonauts.

Summanus An ancient Etruscan deity of the nocturnal heavens, to whom was ascribed thunder by night, as that by day was ascribed to Iupiter. He had a chapel on the Capitol, and his image in terra-cotta stood on the pediment of the great temple. Besides this, he had a temple near the Circus Maximus, where on the 20th of June an annual sacrifice was offered to him. His true significance became in later times so obscure that his name was falsely explained as meaning the highest of the Manes ( summus Manium ) and equivalent to Dis pater, or the Greek Pluto ( Varro, L. L. v. 74; Cic. De Div. i. 10; Pliny, H. N. xxix. 57 ).

Garganus A son of Zeus, from whom the town and mountain of Gargara in Mysia were believed to have derived their name. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Garguara.)

Janus 1. an ancient Roman god of doorways, of beginnings, and of the rising and setting of the sun, usually represented as having one head with two bearded faces back to back, looking in opposite directions. 2. Astron. a moon of the planet Saturn, located just outside the rings.  [< L, special use of jānus doorway, archway, arcade]

Merops ( in the Iliad) a Percosian augur who foresaw and unsuccessfully tried to prevent the death of his sons in the Trojan War.

Dido In Roman legend, a Tyrian princess, founder and queen of Carthage. In the Aeneid, she falls in love with Aeneas and kills herself when he leaves her.

Parthenope In Greek legend, one of the Sirens, who, unable to charm Odysseus by her singing, cast herself into the sea.  [< Gk. Parthenopē ]

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Anadyomene [L., fr. Gr. anadyomenē, lit., rising up out of the sea.] Gr. Myth. An epithet of Aphrodite, alluding to the legend of her rising out of the sea at birth.

Salmoneus In Greek mythology, a son of Aeolus and king of Elis who was destroyed by thunderbolts for claiming to be the equal of Zeus.

Lepreum A town of Elis in Triphylia, situated forty stadia from the sea( Herod. iv. 148 ). Its name was derived from Leprea, daughter of Pyrgeus, or from Lepreus, son of Poseidon, and rival of Heracles, by whom he was slain ( Pausan. v. 5,4 ).

Polyphontes A descendant of Heracles, who slew Cresphontes, king of Messene, and married his wife Meropé, taking also possession of the kingdom. He was slain by Aepytus, son of Cresphontes ( Apollod. ii. 8,4 ).

Plutus In Greek mythology, the god of riches, blinded by Zeus so that his gifts should be distributed without discrimination.  [ < L < Gk. Ploutos < ploutos wealth ]

Lampetia Daughter of Helios ( the sun ) and sister of Phaëthon ( Odyss. xiii.132 ).

Harma A small place in Boeotia, near Tanagra ( Il. ii. 499 ). It got its name traditionally from the chariot ( äμρα ) of Adrastus, which broke down at this place; or, according to others, from the fact that the chariot of Amphiaraüs ( q. v.) was here swallowed up by the earth ( Pausan. ix. 19 § 4 ).

Hymen In Greek mythology, the god of marriage.

Aristaeus In Greek mythology, a son of Apollo, the tutelary deity of herdsmen and beekeepers.

Dorus In Greek legend, son of Hellen and ancestor of the Dorians.

Atropos Gk. Myth. One of the three Fates, the cutter of the thread of destiny.

Eteocles Class. Myth. a son of Oedipus and the brother of Polynices, by whom he was slain. Cf. Seven against Thebes ( def. 1).

Soter [Gr. sōtēr savior, deliverer, preserver.] 1. Gr. Relig. A savior or deliverer;  an epithet of Zeus, Poseidon, and other gods. 2. A title of Ptolemy I of Egypt ( 367-285 B. C.).
Castalides [L., fr. Gr. Kastalidai.] Gr. Myth. The Muses.

Asia A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wife of Iapetus, and mother of Atlas, Epimetheus, and Prometheus ( Hes. Theog. 35). The name of the continent of Asia is traditionally derived from hers.

Deucalion In Greek mythology, a son of Prometheus who, with his wife Pyrrha, was the only survivor of a deluge sent to punish the world's wickedness.

Admetus Class. Myth. a Thessalian king, one of the Argonauts and husband of Alcestis.

Promethean adj.1. Of, pertaining to, or like Prometheus. 2. Creative or life-bringing.  n. One who is Promethean in manner or deed.

Damon and Pythias In Roman legend, two devoted friends. Damon served as hostage for the condemned Pythias ( Phintias ) who wished to visit his home before dying.

Damocles In Greek legend, a courtier who overpraised the happiness of the tyrant Dionysius the Elder, and was forced to sit at a banquet under a sword suspended by a single hair that he might know the perilous nature of that happiness.  sword of Damocles Any impending calamity.  Damoclean adj.

Danaid One of the Danaides.

Geryon In Greek mythology, a winged monster with three bodies: killed by Hercules.

Ilium Latin name of ancient Troy.

Thersites In the Iliad, an ugly and scurrilous Greek soldier in the Trojan War, later killed by Achilles for troublemaking.

Orestes 1. Class. Myth. the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, and the brother of Electra and Iphigenia: he avenged the death of Agamemnon by killing Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus, then was pursued by the Furies until saved by Athena. 2. ( italics ) a tragedy ( 408 B. C. ) by Euripides.

Trojan horse 1. In classical legend, a large, wooden horse, described in Vergil's Aeneid, filled with Greek soldiers and left at the Trojan gates. When it was brought within the walls the soldiers emerged at night and admitted the Greek army, who burned the city: also called wooden horse. 2. A person, device, etc., intended to disrupt or undermine a plan or institution.

Trojan War In Greek legend, the ten year's war waged by the confederated Greeks under their king Agamemnon, against the Trojans to recover Helen, the wife of Menelaus, who had been abducted by Paris; celebrated especially in the Iliad and the Odyssey. See APPLE OF DISCORD.

hamadryad In mythology, a wood nymph fabled to live and die with the tree she inhabited.  [ < Gk. hamadryas, -ados < hama together with + drys oak tree ]

Carna A Roman divinity whose name is probably connected with caro, " flesh," for she was regarded as the protector of the physical well-being of man. Her festival was celebrated on June 1, and was believed to have been instituted by Brutus in the first year of the Republic. Ovid confounds this goddess with Cardea ( q.v.). See Macrob. Sat. i. 12.

Aesculapian adj. Relating to Aesculapius or the art of healing. n. A disciple of Aesculapius; Physician. Also spelled Esculapian.

Fountain of Youth A legendary fountain said to have the power of restoring youth; sought by Ponce de Leon and other early explorers in Florida and the West Indies.

Ixion In Greek mythology, a Thessalian king whom Zeus punished for his love for Hera by having him tied to a perpetually revolving wheel in Hades.

Elara The daughter of Orchomenus or Minyus, and mother by Zeus of the giant Tityus. Through fear of Heré, Zeus concealed her under the earth ( Apollo. i. 4,1 ).

Curiatii In Roman legend, three brothers killed by the Horatii.

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Demoleon (1) A Centaur, killed by Theseus at the nuptials of Pirithoüs ( Ovid, Met. xii. 356 ). (2) A son of Antenor, killed by Achilles ( Hom. Il. xx. 395 ).

Euryale One of the Gorgons.

Hippomedon A son of Aristomachus and Mythidicé, was one of the seven chiefs that went against Thebes. He was by Ismarus, son of Acastus, or by Ismaeus ( Apollod. iii. 6; Aesch. Sept. 490; Pausan. ii. 36 ).

Hermaphroditus In Greek mythology, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite, who became united with the nymph Salmacis in a single body.

Erichtho [L., Gr. Erichthō.] According to Lucan, a Thessalian witch consulted by Pompey; also, a witch mentioned in Ovid.

Jason In Greek legend, a prince of Iolcus who led the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece, and who married Medea. [< Gk., healer ]

underworld 1. ( in mythology ) the abode of spirits of the dead under the earth. 2. the part of society habitually engaged in crime.

Sinis or Sinnis Son of Polypemon, Pemon, or Poseidon, by Sylea, the daughter of Corinthus. He was a robber, who frequented the Isthmus of Corinth, and killed the travelers whom he captured by fastening them to the top of a fir-tree, which he bent, and then let spring up again. He himself was killed in this manner by Theseus. See Apollod. iii. 16, 2; Pausan. ii. 1, 3; and THESEUS.

Italus A fabled monarch of early Italy, said to have been the son of Telegonus by Penelope. See Thuc. vi. 2, and ITALIA.

Tartar Obs. Tartarus.

griffin¹ In Greek mythology, a creature with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion: also griffon, gryphon. [ < OF grifoun < L gryphus < Gk. gryps ]

Erycina A surname of Aphrodite, from Mount Eryx in Sicily, where she had a temple. The Erycinian Aphrodite appears to have been the same with the Phoenician Astarte, whose worship was brought over by the latter people, and a temple erected to her on Mount Eryx. In confirmation of this, we learn from Diodorus Siculus that the Carthaginians revered the Erycinian Aphrodite equally as much as did the natives themselves ( Diod. Sic. iv. 83 ).

Norn In Norse mythology, any of the three goddesses of fate.

Laomedonteus An epithet applied to the Trojans from their king Laomedon ( Verg. Aen. iv. 542, vii. 105, viii. 18 ).

Ixios A name applied to Apollo, and derived from a district in Rhodes called Ixiae or Ixia.

gigantomachy 1. In classical mythology, the war of the giants against the gods. 2. Any war of giants. Also gigantomachia. [< Gk. gigantomachia < gigas, -anthos giant + machē  battle ]

Theonoë Daughter of Proteus and Psammanthé, also called Idothea. See IDOTHEA.

Nausithoüs The son of Poseidon and Periboea, and father of Alcinoüs, king of the Phaeacians. See COCYRA; PHAEACES; SCHERIA.

Amyclides Hyacinthus ( q. v.).

Lethe 1. In Greek mythology, a river in the realm of Hades a drink from which produced oblivion. 2. Oblivion; forgetfulness. [< Gk. lēthē oblivion ] ─ Lethean adj.

ancile [L] in Roman antiquity, the sacred shield of Rome, said to have fallen from heaven during the reign of Numa Pompilius.

Midgard In Norse mythology, the earth as the abode of mankind, considered to be encircled by a great serpent: also called Mithgarthr. Also Midgarth. [< ON Mithgarthr < mithr mid + garthr yard, house ]

Iliac adj. Pertaining to Troy ( Ilium ); also, pertaining to the Trojan War. Also Ilian.

Amazonomachia, Amazonomachy [NL. Amazonomachia, fr. Gr. Amazōn Amazon + machē battle.] Gr. Myth. A combat between Amazons and Greeks. Cf. AMAZON, n. 1.

Cypraea [NL., fr. Cypria, a name of Venus. See CYPRIAN.]

Idomeneus In Greek legend, a king of Crete and ally of the Greeks in the Trojan War.

Pandarus 1. In the Iliad, a leader of the Lycians in the Trojan War. 2. In medieval legend, Chaucer and Shakespear, a go-between who procures Cressida for Troilus. Alos Pandar.

Tisiphone In Greek mythology, one of the three Furies.

Harpy In Greek mythology, one of several filthy, winged monsters with the head of woman and the tail, legs, and talons of a bird, who fouled or seized the food of their victims, carried off the souls of the dead, etc. [< F Harpie < L Harpyia < Gk. harpazein to seize ]

Lyceum A grove near Athens in which Aristotle taught. [< L< Gk. Lykeion < lykeios, epithet of Apollo ( whose temple was near this grove )]

Elpenor ( in the Odyssey ) a companion of Odysseus who was killed when he fell off the roof of Circe's palace.

Boeotus Class. Myth. a son of Arne and Poseidon, and ancestor of the Boeotians.

Thyestes In Greek legend, a son of Pelops; brother of Atreus.  ─ Thyestean adj.

Hippodamia [L., fr. Gr. Hippodameia.] Class. Myth. a Daughter of Oenotrus, who offered her to the suiter who could defeat his horses in a race. She was won by Pelops, for love of wh9m she bribed Myrtilus, her father'said charioteer, to remove a spoke from his charioteer wheel. b Deidamia, the wife of Pirithoüs.

Cloelia [L.] In Roman legend, a maiden who, by swimming the Tiber, escaped Porsena, to whom she had been given as a hostage.

Myrmidon In Greek legend, one of a warlike people of Thessaly, followers of Achilles in the Trojan War. [< L < Gk., pl. Myrmidones ─ Myrmidonian adj.

Jupiter Ammon A Roman name for the Egyptian god Amen. Also Jupiter Amen, Jupiter Amon.

Islands of the Blessed In Greek mythology, islands in the Western Ocean, the abode of favorites of the gods after death.

Pyrrha In Greek mythology, the daughter of Epimetheus and wife of Deucalion.

Enosigaeus Class. Myth. an epithet of Poseidon, meaning "earth-shaker".

Agamemnon 1. Class. Myth. a king of Mycenae, a son of Atreus and brother of Menelaus. He led the Greeks in the Trojan War and was killed by Clytemnestra, his wife, upon his return from Troy. 2. ( italics ) a tragedy ( 458 B. C.) by Aeschylus. Cf. Oresteia. [< Gk Agamémon- ( s. of Agamemnon ), < * Agamemnon-, equiv. to aga great + men- ( truncation of MENELAUS , meaning king ) + -mon- suffix used in shortened names ]

Elicius A surname of Iupiter at Rome, because he was invoked to send down lightning ( Ovid, Fast. iii. 328; and cf. Livy, I. 20 ).

Lupa A she-wolf; an animal held in great veneration at Rome, because Romulus and Remus were fabled to have been suckled by one. See ROMULUS.

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unicorn a mythical animal resembling a horse with a single horn projecting from its forehead.

Periboea (1) The wife of Icarius and mother of Penelopé. (2) The wife of Telamon and mother of Teucer and Aiax. She is also called ERIBOEA. (3) The daughter of Hipponoüs and wife of Oeneus by whom she became the mother of Tydeus.

Alcanthous Class. Myth.1. a son of Pelops and Hippodamia who married Euachme and became king of Megara. 2. ( in the Iliad ) a Trojan chieftain slain by Idomeneus.

Alpheus In Greek mythology, a river god who fell in love with the nymph Arethusa and changed into a river to mingle with her when she had become a fountain.

Aegeus In Greek mythology, a king of Athens, father of Theseus.

Dis In Roman mythology: a God of the lower world: identified with Pluto. b The kingdom of the dead: identified with the Greek Hades.

Palladian adj.1. Gk. Myth. Of, relating to, or characteristic of Athena. 2. Of, relating to, or characterized by wisdom or study.  [ Lat. Palladius < Gk. Palladios < Pallas, Pallad-, Pallas Athena ]

Helicon A mountain range in Boeotia, east central Greece; highest point, 5, 736 ft; legendary home of the Muses; site of the fountain Hippocrene.  Heliconian adj.

Maera Class. Myth. Hecuba, after being changed into a dog for blinding Polymestor. Also, Maira.

Paphian Goddess Class. Myth. Aphrodite, worshiped in Cyprus as the goddess of sexual love.

Silvius The son of Ascanius. He is said to have been so-called because he was born in a wood ( silva ). All the succeeding kings of Alba bore the cognomen Silvius. See Livy, i. 3.

lotus eater 1. In the Odyssey, one of a people living on the northern coast of Africa, who lived a life of indolence and forgetfulness introduced by eating the fruit of the lotus tree. 2. Anyone considered to be living an indolent, irresponsible existence.

Egeria In Roman legend, a nymph who was the adviser of Numa Pompilius n. Any woman adviser.

Promachus ( Προμαχος, " fighter in the front rank," "protector"), (1) An epithet of Athené ( q.v. ). (2) Son of Parthenopaeus and the nymph Clymené, and one of the Epigoni ( q.v. ).

Myrmidon A son of Zeus and Eurymedusa, daughter of Clitos, to whom Zeus managed to obtain access in the form of an ant ( μνρμηξ ). He was the legendary ancestor of the Thessalian Myrmidons; and was by Pisidicé the father of Antiphus and Actor ( Apollod. i.7,3; Apoll. Rhod. i. 56 ).

Ceyx In Greek mythology, the husband of Alcyone.

Prometheus In Greek mythology, a Titan who stole fire from heaven for mankind and as a punishment was chained to a rock, where a eagle daily devoured his liver, which was made whole again at night. He was released by Hercules.  [< L< Gk. Promētheus]

Aegiochus The " aegis-bearer," an epithet applied to Zeus ( q. v.). See AEGIS.

Epimetheus In Greek mythology, a Titan, the brother of Prometheus and the husband of Pandora.

Atlas 1. In Greek mythology, a Titan who supported the heavens on his shoulders. 2. Anyone bearing a great burden. 3. An intercontinental ballistic missile of the U.S Air Force.  [< L< Gk. Atlas tlēnai to bear, carry ]

Tereus In Greek mythology, a Thracian king who was transformed into a hoopoe by the gods after he had raped Philomela, his sister-in-law.

Patroclus In the Iliad, a Greek soldier and friend of Achilles in the Trojan War who, wearing Achillie's armor, was mistakened for him and killed by Hector.

Aegialeus The son of Adrastus, by Amphithea, daughter of Pronax, and a memeber of the expedition led by the Epigoni against Thebes. He was the only leader slain in this war. See EPIGONI.

Thestor The son of Idmon and Laothoë, and father of Calchas, Theoclymenus, Leucippe, and Theonoe. The patronymic THESTORIDES is frequently given to his son Calchas.

Electryoné A patronymic given to Alcmené, daughter of Electryon.

Itys In Greek mythology, the son of Tereus and Procne, slain by Procne and Philomela. See PHILOMELA.

Ganymede In Greek mythology, a beautiful shepherd boy whom Zeus, in the form of an eagle, carried to Olympus to be cupbearer to the gods. n.1. Any youth who serves drinks: a humorous use. 2. Astron. The fourth and largest satellite of Jupiter.  [< Gk. Ganymēdēs]

Aëllo [L., fr. Gr. Aellō.] Gr. Myth. A Harpy.

Poeas King of the Malians at the foot of Mount Oeta. He set fire to the pyre of Heracles, in return for which the hero gave him his bow and his poisoned arrows. His son was Philoctetes ( q.v. ), who is hence called Poeantius heros.
Leucophrys (1) A city of Caria, close to a curious lake of warm water, and having a renowned temple of Artemis Leucophryné ( Xen. Hell. iii. 2,19). (2) Another name for the island of Tenedos ( q. v. ).
Baucis In Greek mythology, a poor peasant woman who with her husband Philemon sheltered Zeus and Hermes disguised as travelers.

Castalia A fountain on Mount Parnassus, near Delphi, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, and supposed to give inspiration to those who drank of it. Also Castaly Castalian adj.

Titanomachy In Greek mythology, the war of the Titans against the Olympian gods.  [< Gk. Titanomachia < Titan Titan + machē battle ]

Electra 1. Also, Elektra. Class. Myth. the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra who incited her brother Orestes to kill Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. 2. Astron. one of the six visible stars in the Pleiades.

Amber Islands ( in ancient geography ) a name given by the Greeks in later times to the islands in the North Sea. Cf. Electrides.

undine In European folklore, a water nymph who could obtain a soul by marrying a mortal and bearing a child.  [< G or F < NL undina < L unda wave ]

Ulysses The Latin name for Odysseus.

Elephenor The son of Chalcodon and Melanippé, and prince of the Abantes. He was one of the suiters of Helen, and led a force against Troy, before which city he was slain by Agenor.

Lerna a marshy region near Argos, Greece: the legendary abode of the Hydra slain by Hercules. Also, Lerne. ─Lernaean, Lernean adj.

Dirae Rom. Myth. the Furies. See fury ( def. 3 ).

cornucopia a horn of plenty, a horn-shaped container overflowing with fruits and flowers.

Phaea The sow of Crommyon, in Megaris, which ravaged the country till slain by Theseus. See Plut. Thes. 9; and THESEUS.

hippalectryon [Gr. hippalektryōn, fr. hippos horse + alektryōn cock.] Gr. Antiq. A monster combining the forms of the horse and the cock. It was mentioned by Aeschylus and ridiculed by Aristophanes.

Athenaea [L., fr. Gr. Athēnaia.] Gr. Relig. An Athenian festival in honor of Athena.
Icarius [L., fr. Gr. Ikarios.] Gr. Myth. a An Athenian who recieved the wandering Dionysus hospitably and to whom the god taught the cultivation of the vine. b The father of Penelope.

Lynceus The son of Aegyptus, the only one of his fifty sons that was spared during the treacherous attach of the Danaides, the fifty daughters of Aegyptus' brother Danaus. Lynceus was married to Hypermnestra, and together they became the ancestors of the Argives.

Teledice A nymph who the mother by Phoroneus of Apis and Niobe.

mares of Diomedes Class. Myth. wild mares owned by Diomedes, a Thracian king, who fed them on human flesh: captured by Hercules in fullfillment of one of his labors.

a-1966 Random House Dict. of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition