Wednesday, October 23, 2013

M. E. XXXIV

Furina An early Latin goddess, whose name in the time of Varro, was known to very few ( Varr. L. L. v. 3 ). There was a sacred grove of this goddess beyond the Tiber ( in which Gaius Gracchus was slain ), and this, with the similitude of the name, led Cicero and others to identify Furina with the Furies ( Cic. N. D. iii. 18 ). The Furinalia were celebrated on the 25th of July.

Acoetes A sailor saved by Bacchus for having espoused the cause of the god when the rest of the crew desired to sell him as a slave. The legend will be found narrated under the title DIONYSUS.

Myrtilus [L., fr. Gr. Myrtilos.] Gr. Myth. The charioteer of Oenomaus ( See HIPPODAMIA ). He was slain by Pelops, laying a curse upon the latter's house.

Protogonos [Gr. prōtogonos firstborn.] Gr. Relig. A form assumed by Eros in Orphism, conceived as generator of the universe.

Aestas [L. See ESTIVAL.] Rom. Relig. A goddess, personification of summer.

Arges [Gr. Argēs, lit., bright.] Gr. Myth. One of the Cyclops.

Chrysippus (1) A son of Pelops, carried off by Laius ( Apollod. iii. 5, 6 ). This circumstance became a theme with many ancient writers, and hence the story assumed different shapes, according to the fancy of those who handled it. The death of Chrysippus was also related in different. According to the common account, he was slain by Atreus, at the instigation of his step-mother, Hippodamia. ( Consult Heyne ad loc.).

Zagreus In Greek mythology, a son of Zeus and Persephone slain by the Titans and revived as Dionysus. See ORPHIC MYSTERIES.

Auxo Class. Myth. one of the Graces.

Cyllenian adj. [L. Cyllenius, fr. Gr. Kyllēnios.] Of or pertaining to Mount Cyllene, in Arcadia, the fabled birthplace of Hermes, who was hence called Cyllenius; also, of or pertaining to Hermes, th god of commerce, thieving, lying, etc.,; as, Cyllenian art, thievery.

Pasithea Class. Myth. one of the Graces.

Keres In Greek mythology, malignant spirits and bringers of evil.  [ < Gk. Kēres ]

Aeolus  [L., fr. Gr. Aiolos.Class. Myth. In the Odyssey, the ruler of "the Aeolian isle," Having dominion over the winds; later, as in the Aeneid, the god of the winds, which he kept confined in caves or released at the bidding of Jove. A king of Thessaly, founder of the Aeolians branch of the Greeks.

Cabiri a group of gods, probably of Eastern origin, worshiped in mysteries in various parts of ancient Greece, the cult centers being at Samothrace and Thebes. Also, Cabeiri, Kabeiri. ― Cabirean, Cabirian, Cabiric, Cabiritic adj.

Achelous Greek Mythology. the river god, represented as a bull with a human head.

Mygdon The son of Acmon, who fought against the Amazons, and from whom some of the Phrygians are said to have been called Mygdonides ( Pausan. x. 27 ).

Achaemenides A companion of Odysseus, who left him behind in Sicily when he fled from the Cyclops ( Verg. Aen. iii. 614 ).

Acmonides A name given by Ovid to one of the three Cyclops ( q. v. ), called by Vergil Pyracmon, and by other writers Arges.

Curetis (1) A name given to Crete, as being the residence of the Curetes ( Ovid, Met. viii. 136 ). See CURETES. (2) The earlier name of Aetolia.

Aeolides A patronymic applied to various indiividuals, of whom the most important are Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, Odysseus, to whom it is given because his mother, Anticlea, was pregnant by Aeolus when she married Laërtes; and Misenus, the follower of Aeneas, who was called so figuritively, from his skill in blowing the trumpet. The feminine form is Aeolis.

Lityerses [Gr. Lityērses.] Gr. Myth. A son of Midas accustomed to challenge wayfarers to a reaping-song contest and to bind their heads in the sheaves; also, a reaper's song. Cf. LINUS.

Criophorus [Nl. See CRIOPHORE.] Gr. Relig. An epithet of Hermes as protector of flocks.

veritas [L.] Truth; also [cap.], the personification of truth.

Dorium A town of Messenia, where Thamyris the musician challenged the Muses to a trial of skill. Pausanias ( iv. 33 ) notices this ancient town, of which he saw the ruins near a fountain named Achaia.

Anticlea [L., fr. Gr. Antikleia.] 1. Gr. Myth. The mother of Odysseus.

Hippotades A son of Hippotes, and hence = Aeolus. From him the Aeoliae Insulae are called Hippotadae Regnum ( Ovid, Met. xiv. 86 ).

Leucé An island in the Euxine Sea, near the mouth of the Borysthenes. It derived its name from its white, sandy shores. According to the poets, the souls of the ancient heroes were placed here as in the Elysian Fields, and enjoyed perpetual felicity. Here, too, the shade of Achilles is fabled to have been united to that of Helen.

Virginia [L. Virginia, Verginia, fem. of Verginius, Vriginius.] 1. Feminine proper name. 2. In R9man legend, the innocent daughter of the centurion Lucius Virginius. Her beauty having excited the lustful of the decemvir Appius Claudius, he instigated one of his clients to seize her and claim her as his slave. When, however, Appius was about to give judgement in his client's favor, Virginius, seizing a butcher's knife, slew his daughter. This so aroused the city and camp that the decemvirs were deprived of their power. Virginius, being made Tribune, put Appius in prison, where he took his own life.

Hippona A goddess who presided over horses. Her statues were placed in horses' stables ( Juv. viii. 157 ).

Diomedeae Insulae Five small islands in the Adriatic Sea, north of the promontory Garganum in Apulia, named after Diomedes. ( See DIOMEDES. ) The largest of these, called Diomeda Insula or Trimerus ( Tremiti ), was the place whither Iulia, the daughter of Augustus, was exiled ( Tac. Ann. iv. 71 ).

Lips The southwest wind ( Herod. ii. 25 ), corresponding to the Latin Africus.

Polyxena [L., fr. Gr. Polyxenē.] A daughter of Priam and Hecuba, betrothed to Achilles. At their wedding Paris treacherously slew Achilles, and after the fall of Troy Polyxena was sacrificed to his shade. Another story relates that she fell in love with Achilles, fled to the Greeks, and after Achilles's death killed herself on his tomb. See HECUBA.

Inachidae A name given to the first eight successors of Inachus ( q. v. ) on the throne of Argos.

Echion (1) One of the heroes who sprung from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. ( See SPARTI.) He was the husband of Agavé and father of Pentheus, who is hence called Echionides. (2) Son of Hermes and Antianira; took part in the Calydonian hunt and in the expedition of the Argonauts.

Licymnius (1) A son of Electryon and the Phrygian slave Midea, and consequently half-brother of Alcmené. He was married to Perimedé, by whom he became the father of Oeonus, Argeus, and Melas. He was a friend of Heracles, whose son Tlepolemus slew him, according to some unintentionally, and according to others in a fit of anger.

Labdacidae A name given to Oedipus as descended from Labdacus. See OEDIPUS.

Pandean adj. Of or pertaining to the god Pan.

Acholoë [NL., fr. Gr. Acholoē, name of a harpy.]

a-1898 Harper's Dict. of Class. Literature & Antiquities

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

M. E. XXXIII

fons [L. See 1st FOUNT.] 1. Fount; hence, source. 2. [cap.] Rom. Relig. God of fountains.

Agyieus  [Gr. agyia street.] Gr. Relig. An epithet of Apollo derived from the setting up, at street doors, of Pillars which were regarded as altars or representations of the god.

Thamyris [Gr.] Gr. Myth. A Thracian singer who boasted that he excelled the Muses. He was punished by losing both his sight and his musical power.

Coronus The son of Caeneus who reigned over the Lapiths in the days of Heracles. King Aegimius appealed to Heracles for help against Coronus and his people, and Heracles slew Coronus ( see HERACLES ). Coronus had taken part in the expedition of the Argonauts. His son was LEONTEUS.

Iole [L., fr. Gr. Iolē.] Gr. Myth. A daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia, who promised her hand to the suiter successful in a contest of archery, but who refused to fullfil his agreement when Hercules won. Hercules sacked the town and took Iole as a captive.

Zoeteus A son of Tricolonus, and founder of the town of Zoetia in Arcadia. ( Paus. viii. 3. § 6; Steph. Byz. s.v).

Macistus 1. A surname of Heracles, who had a temple in the neighbourhood of the town of Macistus in Triphylia. 2. A son of Athamas and brother of Phrixus, from whom the town of Macistus in Triphylia was believed to have derived its name. ( Steph. Byz. s. v. Makistos.)

Cadmilus Or Casmilus, or Cadmus, according to Acusilaus ( ap. Strab. x. p 472 ) a son of Hephaestus and Cabiro, and father of the Samothracian Cabiri and the Cabirian nymphs. Others consider Cadmilus himself as the fourth of the Samothracian Cabiri. ( Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. 1. 917; comp. CABIRI ).

Caicias The god of the north-east wind. See ANEMI.

Oeax A son of Nauplius and Clymene, and brother of Palamedes and Nausimedon ( Apollod. ii. 1. in fin. iii. 2 § 2; Eurip. Orest. 432 ).

Leonteus A son of Coronus, and prince of the Lapithae. In conjunction with Polypoetes, he led the Lapithae, in 40 ships, against Troy, where he took part in the games at the funeral of Patroclus. ( Hom. Il. ii. 745, &c, xii. 130. &c., xxiii. 837, &c. )

Alcyonides The daughters of the giant Alcyoneus. After their father's death, they threw themselves into the sea and were changed into ice-birds. Their names are Phthonia, Anthe, Methone, Alcippe, Pallene, Drimo, and Asteria. ( Eustath. ad Hom. p. 776; Suidas, s. v. Alkuonides.)

Caliadne A Naiad nymph, one of the wives of the Egyptian king Aegyptus. She was the mother of twelve of his fifty sons.

Hylonome During the fight between the Lapiths and the Centaurs at the wedding of Pirithous, Hylonome, the wife of the Centaur Cyllarus, killed herself with the same arrow as had killed her husband, because she did not want to survive him.

Dares [L., fr. Gr. Darēs.] Gr. Myth. A companion of Aeneas, who wins in the boxing match described in the fifth book of the Aeneid. Hence, a good boxer.

Protesilaus [L., fr. Gr. Prōtesilaos.] Gr. Antiq. A Thessalian warrior, first of the Greeks to be slain at the siege of Troy. An oracle having predicted that the first person to step on land should be killed, he alone dared to sacrifice himself. See LAODAMIA.

Erylus A legendary hero of Praeneste ( modern Palestrina ), known to us only through the Aeneid. He was the son of the goddess Feronia, and had three separate lives and three bodies. When Evander came to settle in Latium he fought with Erylus and defeated him in single combat.

Hostius Also called Hostus Hostilius, a Roman originally from the colony of Medullia, which was set up by the Albani in Sabine territory. During the reign of Romulus he came  and settled in Rome. After the removal of the Sabines he married HERSILIA by whom he had a son who was the father of King Tullus Hostilius. During the Sabine war on the level ground of the Forum, Hostius disguised himself in the front rank of the Roman army and was the first to be killed. After his death the Romans panicked momentarily until Jupiter Stator intervened to restore order. Hostius had already shown outstanding bravery at the capture of Fidenae for which he was rewarded a laurel wreath.

Phlegyas son of Mars ( Ares ) and Chryse the daughter of Halmus, succeeded Eteocles in the government of Orchomenus in Boeotia, which he called after himself Phlegyantis. He was the father of Ixion and Coronis, the latter of whom became by Apollo the mother of Aesculapius. Enraged at this, Phlegyas set fire to the temple of the god, who killed him with his arrows and condemned him to severe punishment in the lower world. Phlegyas is represented as the mythical ancestor of the Phlegyae, a branch of the Minyae, who emigrated from Orchomenus in Boeotia and settled Phocis.

Liriope an ocean nymph, who became by Cephisus the mother of the beautiful Narcissus.

Brimo the angry or the terrifying, " a surname of Hecate and Proserpina ( Persephone ).

Busiris [L., fr. Gr. Bousiris.] a A mythical Egyptian king, killed by Hercules. b In Milton and others, the Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea at the Exodus.

Phyllis [L., fr. Gr. Phyllis.] 1. Literally, a green bough;  fem. proper name. 2. In Greek legends a Thracian princess betrothed to Demophoön, son of Theseus. On his failure to return to marry her at the time set, Phyllis, thinking herself deserted, hanged herself and was transformed by the gods into an almond tree.

Caicus 1. Son of Oceanus and Tethys god of the Mysian river. 2. A companion of Aeneas in his voyage from Troy to Italy.

Iobes One of Heracles' sons whose mother was Certhe, one of the daughters of Thespius.

Hecalé A poor old woman who hospitably received Theseus when he had gone out to hunt the Marathonian bull, and offered to Zeus a sacrifice for the safe return of the hero. As she died before his return, Theseus decreed that the people of the Attic tetrapolis should offter a sacrifice to her and to Zeus Hecalesius. See THESEUS.

Illyrius The youngest son of Cadmus and Harmonia. He was born during their expedition against the Illyrians. It is from him that the country got its name ( see also GALATEA ).

Cithaeron A mountain, 1, 410 m ( 4, 623 ft ) high, of southeast Greece. It was considered sacred to Dionysus and the Muses.

a-1898 Harper's Dict. of Class. Literature & Antiquities

Thursday, May 9, 2013

M. E. XXXII

Aeacides Class. Myth. a patronymic for any of the descendants of Aeacus, as Achilles, Peleus, and Telamon.

Iphinoë Class. Myth. 1. a daughter of Antia and Proetus who was inficted with madness for her irreverence toward the gods. Cf. Iphianassa ( def. 2 ). 2. the woman who brought Queen Hypsipyle's message of welcome to Jason and the Argonauts.

Hoples Class. Myth. a son of Ion.

Marathon 3. Class. Myth. a son of Epopeus and the father of Corinthus.

Polyhymnia The Muse of sacred song. Also Polymnia.

Aoede Class. Myth. one of the original three Muses; the Muse of song. Also, Aoide. Cf. Melete, mneme ( def. 2 ).

Opheltes Class. Myth. the son of King Lycurgus of Nemea who was killed in infancy by a serpent and in whose memory the Nemean games were held. Also called Archemorus.

Phaënna Class. Myth. one of the Graces worshiped at Sparta.

Sinon a Greek, posing as a deserter, who persuaded the Trojans to take the Trojan Horse into their city.

Meleagrides Class. Myth. the sisters of Meleager of Calydon who were changed into guinea hens by Artemis in order to relieve their grief over the death of their brother.

Admete Class. Myth. a daughter of Eurystheus for whom Hercules took the golden girdle of Ares from Hippolyte.

Symplegades Class. Myth. a pair of rocky islands, at the entrance to the Black Sea, that often clashed together: Athena helped the Argonauts navigate them, after which they became fixed.

Theoclymenus Class. Myth. 1. ( in the Odyssey ) a seer who foretold the return of Odysseus and the death of Penelope's suiters. 2. a son of Proteus and Psamathe who succeeded his father as king of Egypt.

Nautes ( in the Aeneid ) an aged Trojan and advisor to Aeneas.

Cloacina A Roman divinity who presided over sewers ( cloacae ). More properly, however, the word should be written Cluacina ( from cluo = purgo, Plin. xv. 29, 36 ), being so called because at the end of the war with the Sabines the Romans purified themselves in the vicinity of the statue of Venus with myrtle boughs ( Pliny, 1. c.). Later, the similarity of spelling caused a confusion with cloaca, cloacina. See Lactant. i. 20.

Actis Class. Myth. a son of Rhoda and Helius who, when banished from his throne for fractricide, fled to Egypt, where he taught astrology. The Colossus of Rhodes was built in his honor.

Thespian Lion a lion that attacked the flocks of Amphitryon and was killed by Hercules.

mneme 1. Psychol. the retentive basis or basic principle in a mind or organism accounting for memory. 2. ( cap. ) Class. Myth. the Muse of memory, one of the original three Muses. Cf. Aoede, Melete.   [1950-15; < Gk mnḗmé memory; see MNEMONIC]─mnemic adj.

Pandorus A son of Erechtheus.

Philomides Class. Myth. a king of Lesbos who wrestled and killed every opponent until he himself was defeated by Odysseus.

Tatius Rom. Legend. a Sabine king who, following the rape of the Sabine women, attacked Rome and eventually ruled with Romulus. Also, Titus.

Melete Class. Myth. one of the original three Muses, the Muse of meditation. Cf. Aoede, mneme ( def. 2 ).   [< Gk melétē  care, attention]

Iphition ( in the Iliad ) a Trojan warrior slain  by Achilles.

Lucretia 1. Also, Lucrece. Rom. Legend. a Roman woman whose suicide led to the expulsion of the Tarquins and the establishment of the Roman republic. 2. a female given name.

Thespius Class. Myth. the founder of the city of Thespiae and the father, by Megamede, of 50 daughters, all of whom bore sons to Hercules.

Mynes ( in the Iliad ) a king of Lyrnessus killed by Achilles in the Trojan War.

Scamander The god of the river with the same name, near Troy. He was the father of Teucer and participated in the Trojan War ( Iliad XX, 73; XX, 1).

Iphicles Class. Myth. a son of Alcmene and Amphitryon, the brother of Hercules.

Megara 1. a city in ancient Greece: the chief city of Megaris. 2. Class. Myth. a daughter of Creon whose children were slain by her husband, Hercules, in a fit of madness. ─Megarian, Megarean, Megaric, adj.

Arce Class. Myth. a daughter of Thaumas and the sister of Iris and the Harpies. Zeus took away her wings when she aided the Titans in their war against him.

Nicostratus Class. Myth. a son of Menelaus and Helen who, with his illegitimate brother Megapenthes, expelled Helen from Sparta when Menelaus died. Also, Nikostratos.

Sacred Nine Class. Myth. the Muses.

Troezen ( in ancient geography ) a town in E Peloponnesus near the coast of the Saronic Gulf, regarded in mythology as the birthplace of Theseus.

Minyades Class. Myth. the daughters of Minyas who were driven mad by Dionysus as a punishment for refusing to take part in his revels.

Nidhogg Scand. Myth. a serpent in Niflheim who gnaws upon the lowermost root of Yggdrasil. Also, Nidhug.  [< ON Nithhǫgg, equiv. to nith  evil + hǫgg hewer]

Telchines Class. Myth. nine dog-headed sea monsters who as great artisans crafted the sickle of Cronus and the trident of Poseidon.

Tarne ( in the Iliad ) Sardis.

Apples of the Hesperides Class. Myth. the golden apples given to Hera as a wedding gift. They were in the safekeeping of the Hesperides and of the dragon Ladon.

Veiovis Rom. Religion. a god of the dead, sometimes believed to be of Etruscan origin.

Argus 1. Class. Myth. a giant with 100 eyes, set to guard the heifer Io: his eyes were transferred after his death to the peacock's tail. 2. a son of Phrixus and builder of the Argo. 3. ( in the Odyssey ) Odysseus's faithful dog, who recognized his master after twenty years and immediately died.

Calydonian hunt Class. Myth. the pursuit by Meleager, Atalanta, and others of a savage boar ( Calydonian boar ) sent by Artemis to lay waste to Calydon.

Achaeus The grandson of Erechtheus, ancestor of the Achaeans.

a-1966 Random House Dict. of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition

Friday, January 4, 2013

M. E. XXXI

Epaphus [L., fr. Gr. Epaphōs.] Gr. Myth. The son of Zeus by Io, born in Egypt after the wanderings of his mother. He was king of Egypt, and ancestor of a famous line, including Danaus and Cadmus.

Aulestes A Tyrrhenian ally of Aeneas, is called a son of Tiberis and the nymph Manto, and the brother of Ocnus. He was slain by Messapus, and was regarded as the founder of Perusia. ( Virg. Aen. x. 207, xii. 290.).

Messapus A son of Neptune and king of Etruria, who was invulnerable, and a famous tamer of horses. ( Virg. Aen. vii. 691, &c., with the note of Servius.).

Actor Class. Myth. a brother of King Augeas, sometimes believed to be the father, by Molione, of Eurytus and Cteatus. Cf. Moliones.

Daedalion Class. Myth. a son of Lucifer who, despotent over the death of his daughter Chione, leaped off Parnassus: Apollo changed him into a hawk.

Abundantia [L.] Abundance or plenty, personified as a goddess by the Romans.

centauro-triton [L. Centaurus+Triton.] Gr. Myth. A monster with the body, head, and arms of a man, forefoot of a horse, and tail of a fish.

Turnus Roman mythology An Italic king who waged unsuccessful war against Aeneas, who killed him.

Rhea Sylvia In Roman mythology, a vestal, the mother by Mars of Romulus and Remus.

Sterope In Greek mythology, one of the Pleiades: also called Asterope.  n. Astron. One of the six visible stars in the Pleiades cluster.

Anna Perenna [L.] Rom. Relig. An early Italian goddess, whose feast was on March 15.

Portunus [L., fr. portus harbor.] Rom. Relig. Probably, originally, a god of gates or doors ( porta, gate, door ), closely associated with Janus. Later, he came to be recognized as god of the port or harbor. His festival, the Portunalia, was celebrated Aug. 17. See MATUTA.

Lycabas The name of three fictitious personages mentioned by Ovid ( Met. iii. 625, v. 60, xii. 302 ).

Paeon 1. A son of Poseidon and Helle, who fell into the Hellespont. In some legends he was called Edonus. ( Hyg. Poet. Astr. ii. 20.) 2. The physician of the gods. [ See PAEAN.]

Laogoras A king of the Dryopes, was allied with the Lapithae against Aegimius, but was slain by Heracles. ( Apollod. ii. 7. § 7.).

Acrisioné Danaë ( q. v.), daughter of Acrisius.

Hypsipyle [Gr. Hypsipylē.] In Greek legend, a woman of Lemnos who spared her father, Thoas, when the women of the island killed the men.

Melpomene In Greek mythology, the Muse of tragety.  [< Gk. Melpomenē, lit., the songstress < melpein to sing ]

Chloeia A festival celebrated at Athens in honour of Demeter Chloé, or simply Chloé, whose temple stood near the Acropolis ( Hesych.v. χλοιά ). It was solemnized in spring, on the sixth of Thargelion, when the blossoms began to appear and much mirth and rejoicing.

Thalia 1. The Muse of comedy and pastoral poetry. 2. One of the three Graces.  [< L< Gk. Thaleia < thallein to bloom ]

Clytia In Greek mythology, an ocean nymph, beloved by the Sun-god, who deserted her. She was changed into the heliotrope, a flower which is supposed always to turn its head in the direction of the sun's movement.

sylvan .  n. 1. A spirit or deity of the forest. 2. Poetic. A person or animal dwelling in the woods. Also spelled silvan.  [< MF sylvain sylvan < L sylvanus, silvanus < silva wood ]

Jana A Roman goddess. [See JANUS.]

Laonome 1. The wife of Alcaeus, and mother of Amphitryon. ( Paus. viii. 14; see AMPHITRYON.) 2. [See OILEUS and CALLIARUS.] 3. [ See EUPHEMUS.] 4. The wife of Polyphemus, and sister of Heracles. [See POLYPHEMUS, No. 2.]

Euryclea ( in the Odyssey) the nurse of Telemachus who recognized the disguised Odysseus by a scar on his leg. Also, Euryclia.

Golden Bough Class. Myth. a branch of mistletoe, sacred to Proserpina, that served Aeneas as a pass to the underworld.

Oniros The god of dreams. Dreams dwelt on the shores of the Western Ocean, false dreams coming out of an ivory gate and true dreams from a gate of horn ( Odyss. xix 502; xxiv. 12 ). Dreams were controlled by Hermes, the god of messages. Ovid calls them the children of Sleep, and names three of them-Morpheus, Icelus ( or Phobetor ), and Phantasus ( Met. xi. 633 ). For dream-oracles, see ORACULA.

moly 1. A legendary herb possessing magical power and, according to Homer in the Odyssey, given by Hermes to Odysseus for protection against the enchantments of Circe. 2. A wild garlic found in Europe. 3.Informal Molybdeum.  [< L< Gk. mōly ]

apple of discord  In Greek mythology, the golden apple inscribed " for the fairest," thrown among the gods by Eris. Claimed by Hera, Aphrodite, and Athena, it was rewarded by Paris to Aprodite after she promised him Helen.

Lapithae n. pl. Lapith  In Greek mythology, a wild tribe of Thessaly who, at the wedding of their king Pirithous, fought and overcame the centaurs.

ephydriad [Gr. ephydrias, -ados, of the water.] A water nymph. Rare.

Amazon 1. In Greek mythology, one of a race of female warriors said to have lived near the Black Sea. 2. A female warrior. 3. Any large, strong or athletic woman or girl: also amazon.  [ < L < Gk. Amazōn; derived by the Greeks as < a- without + mazōs breast, because of the fable that they cut off the right breast to faciliate the use of the bow ]

Lyctidae [NL., fr. Lyctus, type genus ( fr. L. Lyctus, fr. fr. Gr. Lyktos, mythical founder of Lyctus, city in Crete ) + -idae.]

Astraea In Greek mythology, the goddess of justice.

Triple Hecate Gr. Relig. The goddess as combining three goddesses in one. See HECATE, Illust.

Clashing Rocks Symplegades.

Victrix an ancient Roman epithet variously applied to Venus, Diana, and other goddesses.

Moros Class. Myth. a child of Nyx, and the personification of fate.

Pylades Class. Myth. a son of Strophius who befriended Orestes, accompanied him in his wanderings, and eventually married Electra, sister of Orestes.

nymphaeum 1. a room or area having a fountain, statues, flowers, etc. 2. an architectually treated outlet of a reservoir or aqueduct.  [1760-70; < L < Gk. nymphaîon place sacred to nymphs, n. use of neut. of nymphaîos, equiv. to nýmph (ē) NYMPH + aîos adj. suffix ]

myrtle 1. any plant of the genus Myrtus, esp. M. communis, a shrub of southern Europe having evergreen leaves, fragrant white flowers, and aromatic berries: anciently held sacred to Venus and used as an emblem of love. Cf. myrtle family.

Protogenia Class. Myth. the first woman born after the great flood of Zeus, daughter of Deucalion and Pyrrha. Also, Protogenea.

Napaeae Rom. Legend. the nymphs of a dell.

Tyrrheus Rom. Legend. a shepherd. The killing of his tame stag by Ascanius was a cause of the war between Aeneas' Trojans and the people of Latium. Also, Tyrrhus.

Picumnus one of two ancient Roman fertility gods. Cf. Pilumnus.

Sibylla Class. Myth. an Asian maiden who gained from her lover Apollo the gift of prophecy and long life.

Victor 1. an ancient Roman epithet variously applied to Jupiter, Mars, and Hercules.

Pygmy 5. Class. Myth.( in the Iliad ) one of a race of dwarfs who fought battles with cranes, who preyed on them and destroyed their fields.

Eurybates ( in the Odyssey ) a companion of Odysseus.

Danai Class. Myth.1. the Argives. 2. the Greeks.

Cynthia 1. Artemis: so called from her birth on Mt. Cynthus, on Delos. 2. Literary. the moon, the emblem of Artemis. 3. a female given name.

Erigone Class. Myth. a daughter of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus who hanged herself when Orestes was acquitted of the murder of her parents.

wheel of fortune  The wheel that Fortuna, goddess of chance, is represented as turning in order to bring about changes in human destiny, and that symbolizes the uncertainty of fate.

golden age 1. In Greek and Roman legend, an early period of civilization marked by perfect innocence, peace, and happiness. 2. A period of prosperity or excellence, as in a nation's history, art, literature, etc.

Comus 1. In classical mythology, the young god of revelry. 2. A masque ( 1634 ) by John Milton.

Stentor In the Iliad, a herald famous for his loud voice.

Mimas 1. Astron. one of the moons of Saturn. 2. Class. Myth. one of the Gigantes, killed by Hercules. 3. Rom. Legend. a companion of Aeneas, killed by Mezentius.

Ganymeda Class. Myth. Hebe.

a-1966 Random House Dict. of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition